Gastrophryne olivacea (Hallowell, 1856)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Gastrophryne > Species: Gastrophryne olivacea

Engystoma olivaceum Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 252. Type(s): Not stated; according to Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1, ANSP 2745 is probably the holotype. Type locality: "Kansas and Nebraska", USA; restricted to "Kansas, Geary Co., Fort Riley", USA, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 358; restricted to "vicinity of Lawrence, [Douglas County,] Kansas", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 381, on the basis of the restriction not being based on disclosed evidence. 

Engystoma texense Girard, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 169. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 2644 (2 specimens) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Type locality: "procured in Texas"; given by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 43, as "Rio Seco, near D'Hanis, Medina Co., Texas", USA; listed as "Rio Seco, Medina County, Texas", USA, by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Synonymy (with Engystoma carolinense sensu lato) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 162, and Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 385. Synonymy by Smith, 1933, Copeia, 1933: 217.

Engystoma areolata Strecker, 1909, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 22: 118–119. Holotype: USNM 38999 (formerly J.D. Mitchell 501), according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Type locality: "Guadalupe River bottom, Victoria County, Texas", USA. Synonymy by Burt, 1938, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci., 23: 608. Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1, noted that the type may be a hybrid with Gastrophryne carolinensis.

Gastrophryne areolataStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166.

Gastrophryne texanaStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166.

Gastrophryne texenseStrecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 47.

Engystoma texensisNieden, 1926, Das Tierreich, 49: 65.

Gastrophryne olivaceaSmith, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 501.

Microhyla olivaceaParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 147–148.

Microhyla areolataParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 201.

Microhyla carolinensis olivaceaHecht and Matalas, 1946, Am. Mus. Novit., 1315: 5–7.

Microhyla olivacea olivaceaLangebartel and Smith, 1954, Herpetologica, 10: 126.

Gastrophryne carolinensis olivaceaCarvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 13.

Gastrophryne olivacea olivaceaChrapliwy, Williams, and Smith, 1961, Herpetologica, 17: 89.

English Names

Texas Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne texense [no longer recognized]: Strecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 46; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi).

Mitchell's Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne areolata [no longer recognized]: Strecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 47; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi).

Western Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Smith, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 501; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 5; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 14; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 11).

Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 78; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 335; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9).

Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 22; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8).


Extreme southern Nebraska east and south through central Missouri south through Oklahoma and much of Texas (USA) west and south to Chihuahua, eastern Durango, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí (Mexico); isolated records in southeastern New Mexico (Eddy, Union, Luna Counties), southeastern Colorado and isolated records in western Arkansas (USA). 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico, United States of America, United States of America - Arkansas, United States of America - Colorado, United States of America - Kansas, United States of America - Missouri, United States of America - Nebraska, United States of America - New Mexico, United States of America - Oklahoma, United States of America - Texas


Reviewed by Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1–4; details of distribution given by Nelson, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 129–130. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 243-244, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Makowsky, Chesser, and Rissler, 2009, Genetica, 135: 169–183, reported a striking lack of molecular variation among populations. Geluso and Wright, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 103, provided a record for southern Nebraska, USA, and commented on the range. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007, Anf. Rept. Coahuila México: 53, provided an account for Coahuila, Mexico. Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2013, Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí: 65–66, provided an account for San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Sredl and Field, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 503–506, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 448–455, provided account that summarized the relevant literature, in the sense of including the recently recognized Gastrophryne mazatlanensis as a synonym. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 280–281, provided an account (in the sense of including Gastrophryne mazatlanensis), photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 218–219, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Painter, Stuart, Giermakowski, and Pierce, 2017, Western Wildlife, 4: 36, commented on the status and county range in New Mexico, USA.  Lemos-Espinal, Smith, and Valdes-Lares, 2019, Amph. Rept. Durango: 73–74, provided a brief account for Durango, Mexico. Hernandez, Herr, Stevens, Cork, Medina-Nava, Vialpando, Warfel, Fields, Brodie, and Graham, 2019, Check List, 15: 81, provided a record for Ojinaga municipality, north-eastern Chihuahua, Mexico. Bassett, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e18486): 1–18, provided an updated county distribution map for Texas, USA.           

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