Odontophrynus americanus (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Odontophrynidae > Genus: Odontophrynus > Species: Odontophrynus americanus

Pyxicephalus americanus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 446. Holotype: MNHNP 4530, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 26. Type locality: "nous ne possédons qu'un seul individu, qui a été envoyé de Buenos-Ayres par M. d'Orbignyi". Lescure, Bour, Ineich, Ohler, and Ortiz, 2002, C. R. Palevol, Paris, 1: 531, noted that the data associated with the type are "habite les rives du Rio negro, Patagonie, Argentine". Given as ‘‘habite les rives du Rio Negro, dans la Patagonie septentrionale’’ by Rosset, Baldo, Borteiro, Kolenc, Cazzaniga, and Basso, 2022, Herpetol. Monogr., 36: 82. 

Tomopterna americanaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Ceratophrys americanaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 226.

Ceratophrys occidentalis Berg, 1896, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 5: 168. Syntypes: One adult and one larva, possibly deposited in MACN; MACN 380 reported as holotype by Martino, Dehling, and Sinsch, 2019, PeerJ, 7(e6480): 15. : 82, noted that the smaller of the two syntypesType locality: "Arroyo Agrio (Neuquén)", Argentina. Synonymy by Rosset, Baldo, Borteiro, Kolenc, Cazzaniga, and Basso, 2022, Herpetol. Monogr., 36: 82. 

Odontophrynus americanusMiranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 12: 299.

Odontophrynus occidentalis — Müller, 1934, Zool. Anz., 106: 172; Freiberg, 1942, Physis, Buenos Aires, 19: 229.

Odontophrynus barrioi Cei, Ruiz, and Beçak, 1982, J. Herpetol., 16: 97. Holotype: MZUSP 57635, by original designation. Type locality: "Aguadita springs, 2200 m, 30 km north of the village of Famatina, Sierra de Famatina, La Rioja Province, Argentina". Synonymy with Odontophrynus occidentalis by Martino, Dehling, and Sinsch, 2019, PeerJ, 7(e6480): 15; with Odontophrynus americanus by Rosset, Baldo, Borteiro, Kolenc, Cazzaniga, and Basso, 2022, Herpetol. Monogr., 36: 82.  

Odontophrynus achalensis di Tada, Barla, Martori, and Cei, 1984, Hist. Nat., Corrientes, 4: 151. Holotype: DCN-UNRC 1839, by original designation. Type locality: "Pampa de Achala, Departamentos Punilla y San Alberto, [provincia de] Córdoba, República Argentina entre los 64° 45′ y 64° 52′ de longitud W y entre los 31° 24′ y 31° 50′ de latitud S. Es una altiplanicie del sistema de las Sirras Grandes con una altura media de 2.200 m s.n.m." Synonymy with Odontophrynus occidentalis by Martino, Dehling, and Sinsch, 2019, PeerJ, 7(e6480): 15; with Odontophrynus americanus by Rosset, Baldo, Borteiro, Kolenc, Cazzaniga, and Basso, 2022, Herpetol. Monogr., 36: 82. 

English Names

Common Lesser Escuerzo (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).

American Ground Frog (Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 99).

Cururu Lesser Escuerzo (Odontophrynus achalensis [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).

Barrio's Escuerzo (Odontophrynus barrioi [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).

Cordoba Escuerzo (Odontophrynus achalensis [no longer recognized]:Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).

Distribution

Western Argentina in the Monte ecoregion (from northern Chubut Province up to La Rioja Province), also reaching the southern Dry Chaco ecoregion to the east (Córdoba and San Luis provinces), the coastal dunes of the southern Humid Pampas ecoregion (southern Buenos Aires Province), and the Patagonian steppe ecoregion (Mendoza, Neuquén, and Río Negro provinces).

Comment

Literature prior to 2022 should be used with caution given that Odontophrynus reigi, Odontophrynus asper, and Odontophrynus toledoi were confused with this species until that time. See Barrio and Pistol de Rubel, 1972, Physis, Buenos Aires, 31: 281–291, and Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 301–304, for accounts. See account of Odontophrynus occidentalis by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 307–309. Ruiz, Cei, and Beçak, 1982, Cytogenet. Cell Genet., 33: 303–311, reported on interpopulational chromosomal evolution (as Odontophrynus occidentalis). Morphological differences between nominal Odontophryns barrioi and Odontophrynus occidentalis reported by Crespo and Cei, 1983, Arq. Mus. Bocage, Ser. B, 2: 47–55. Crespo and Cei, 1983, Arq. Mus. Bocage, Ser. B, 2: 47–55, reported significant genetic distance among two populations of this species (as Odontophrynus occidentalis; not including the one subsequently named as Odontophrynus barrioi). Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 200–201, discussed the holotype and synonymy. Second record of nominal Odontophrynus achalensis by Ávila and Priotto, 1995, Herpetol. Rev., 26: 105. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 67–68, briefly compared Bolivian Odontophrynus americanus and Odontophrynus lavillai. Records from Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, and northern Argentina apply (DRF) either to Odontophrynus cordobae or Odontophrynus asperAlvares, Polanco, Brison, Coutinho, and Ruiz, 2002, Genome, 45: 71–81, reported on molecular evolution of 2N (Odontophrynus sp.) and 4N populations (now Odontophrynus asper) of this nominal species from São Paulo, Brazil. Peiretti, Basso, and Rosset, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 221, provided a range extension (as Odontophrynus occidentalis) and commented on the distribution. Rosset, Baldo, Lanzone, and Basso, 2006, J. Herpetol., 40: 465–477, discussed the range and suggested that Odontophrynus americanus might be a complex derived from different autopolyploid origins. Rosset, Baldo, Lanzone, and Basso, 2006, J. Herpetol., 40: 465–477, discussed the range and noted that an undescribed species (presumably Odontophrynus asper, DRF) found in Uruguay, eastern Paraguay, and southern Brazil was formerly confused with Odontophrynus cordobaeRosset, Ferraro, Alcalde, and Basso, 2007, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 2: 97–106, provided life-history, vocalization, osteology and morphology as well as new records for nominal Odontophrynus barrioi. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status of nominal Odontophrynus achalensis in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 402. Records from the Espinhaço Range of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil, are now assigned to Odontophrynus juquinha. Pereyra, Martí, Lescano, Rosset, and Baldo, 2009, Amphibia-Reptilia, 30: 571–575, reported a natural hybrid with Odontophrynus cordobae in central Argentina. González, Galvani, Sanabria, Barrasso, Alcalde, and Quiroga, 2014, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 9: 15–23, reported on larval morphology (as Odontophrynus occidentalis). Martino, Dehling, and Sinsch, 2019, PeerJ, 7(e6480): 1–32, reported on the systematics of Odontophrynus occidentalis and revised the synonymy. See Moroti, Pedrozo, Severgnini, Augusto-Alves, Dena, Martins, Nunes, and Muscat, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 847: 181, for a dot map of the species. Rosset, Baldo, Borteiro, Kolenc, Cazzaniga, and Basso, 2022, Herpetol. Monogr., 36: 86, discussed the complex literature, systematics, distribution, comparative morphology, cytogenetics, advertisement and release calls. 

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