Pipa carvalhoi (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pipidae > Subfamily: Pipinae > Genus: Pipa > Species: Pipa carvalhoi

Protopipa carvalhoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 1937: 56. Syntypes: MNRJ; MNRJ 533 considered "tipo" (invalid lectotype by implication) by P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 412; formally designated lectotype by Caramaschi, 1989, J. Herpetol., 23: 192. Type locality: "Serra da Cachoeira, perto de Casinhas (a 580 ms. sobre o nivel do mar), no E. de Pernambuco, nos brejos do riacho do Cavallo e no proprio riacho (Afl. secundario do Capeberibe, C. de 8° L. S.", Brazil; "Poção, 1.000 ms. de altit."; "Rio Branco (665 ms)"; and "Capueira (840 ms), Garanhuns, E. de Pernambuco", Brazil. Restricted to "Poçao, Pesqueira, Pernambuco", Brazil by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 87. Restricted to "Serra do Acaí—Poção—Município Pesqueiro—Pernambuco", Brazil by the lectotype designation of P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 412; rendered as Poçao Municipality (08°11′ S, 36° 42′ W), State of Pernambuco, Brazil, by lectotype designation by Caramaschi, 1989, J. Herpetol., 23: 192.

Hemipipa carvalhoiMiranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 1937: 26; Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 71.

Pipa carvalhoiDunn, 1948, Am. Mus. Novit., 1384: 7.

English Names

Carvalho's Surinam Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 96).


Rio Grande do Norte and southern Ceará through Sergipe and Pernambuco to eastern Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo, Brazil; isolated records in western Bahia (Municipality of Barreiras). 


See comment associated with Pipa cururu, a synonym of Pipa pipa. Weygoldt, 1976, Z. Tierpsychol., 40: 80–99, reported on the call. Santana, Franco, Rocha, Freitas, De-Carvalho, and Faria, 2014, Check List, 10: 407–408, discussed and mapped the range and provided a record for the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Bünten, Heuwinkel, and Greven, 1992, Salamandra, 28: 72–85, described the call. Jorge, Freire, and Kokubum, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 57, provided the first record from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and commented on the range. Ferreira, Mônico, Silva, Lirio, Zocca, Mageski, Tonini, Beard, Duca, and Silva-Soares, 2019, ZooKeys, 857: 152, noted an unnamed species, "Pipa aff. carvalhoi" in the region of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Dubeux, Silva, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2019, Rev. Nordestina Zool., 12: 18–52, summarized the literature on larval morphology. See Dubeux, Nascimento, Lima, Magalhães, Silva, Gonçalves, Almeida, Correia, Garda, Mesquita, Rossa-Feres, and Mott, 2020, Biota Neotrop., 20 (2: e20180718): 1–24, for characterization and identification of larvae north of the Rio São Francisco in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Lima, Bruschi, Nascimento, Araújo, Costa, Thomé, Garda, Zattera, and Mott, 2020, Syst. Biodiversity, 18: 771–783, provided molecular, cytogenetic, and morphological evidence that this nominal species is composed of three lineage-species: (1) Eastern Atlantic Northeast (Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, eastern Pernambuco, Alagoas); (2) São Francisco and East Atlantic (western Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, northern Espírito Santo); (3) Southeast Atlantic (southern Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais). Ferreira, Serra, Silva, Andrade, and Weber, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 407–409, reported a population in western Bahia, Brazil, in cerrado habitat. Fouquet, Cornuault, Rodrigues, Werneck, Hrbek, Acosta-Galvis, Massemin, Kok, and Ernst, 2022, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 170 (107442): 1–14, confirmed on the basis of molecular analysis the existence of three species under this name. 

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