Pipa carvalhoi (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pipidae > Subfamily: Pipinae > Genus: Pipa > Species: Pipa carvalhoi

Protopipa carvalhoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 1937: 56. Syntypes: MNRJ; MNRJ 533 considered "tipo" (invalid lectotype by implication) by P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 412; formally designated lectotype by Caramaschi, 1989, J. Herpetol., 23: 192. Type locality: "Serra da Cachoeira, perto de Casinhas (a 580 ms. sobre o nivel do mar), no E. de Pernambuco, nos brejos do riacho do Cavallo e no proprio riacho (Afl. secundario do Capeberibe, C. de 8° L. S.", Brazil; "Poção, 1.000 ms. de altit."; "Rio Branco (665 ms)"; and "Capueira (840 ms), Garanhuns, E. de Pernambuco", Brazil. Restricted to "Poçao, Pesqueira, Pernambuco", Brazil by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 87. Restricted to "Serra do Acaí—Poção—Município Pesqueiro—Pernambuco", Brazil by the lectotype designation of P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 412; rendered as Poçao Municipality (08°11′ S, 36° 42′ W), State of Pernambuco, Brazil, by lectotype designation by Caramaschi, 1989, J. Herpetol., 23: 192.

Hemipipa carvalhoiMiranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 1937: 26; Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 71.

Pipa carvalhoiDunn, 1948, Am. Mus. Novit., 1384: 7.

English Names

Carvalho's Surinam Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 96).


Rio Grande do Norte and southern Ceará through Sergipe and Pernambuco to eastern Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo, Brazil; isolated records in western Bahia (Municipality of Barreiras). 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil

Endemic: Brazil


See comment associated with Pipa cururu, a synonym of Pipa pipa. Weygoldt, 1976, Z. Tierpsychol., 40: 80–99, reported on the call. Santana, Franco, Rocha, Freitas, De-Carvalho, and Faria, 2014, Check List, 10: 407–408, discussed and mapped the range and provided a record for the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Bünten, Heuwinkel, and Greven, 1992, Salamandra, 28: 72–85, described the call. Jorge, Freire, and Kokubum, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 57, provided the first record from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and commented on the range. Ferreira, Mônico, Silva, Lirio, Zocca, Mageski, Tonini, Beard, Duca, and Silva-Soares, 2019, ZooKeys, 857: 152, noted an unnamed species, "Pipa aff. carvalhoi" in the region of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Dubeux, Silva, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2019, Rev. Nordestina Zool., 12: 18–52, summarized the literature on larval morphology. See Dubeux, Nascimento, Lima, Magalhães, Silva, Gonçalves, Almeida, Correia, Garda, Mesquita, Rossa-Feres, and Mott, 2020, Biota Neotrop., 20 (2: e20180718): 1–24, for characterization and identification of larvae north of the Rio São Francisco in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Zattera, Gazolla, Soares, Gazoni, Pollet, Recco-Pimentel, and Bruschi, 2020, Frontiers in Genetics, 11(637): 1–10, reported on karyology. Lima, Bruschi, Nascimento, Araújo, Costa, Thomé, Garda, Zattera, and Mott, 2020, Syst. Biodiversity, 18: 771–783, provided molecular, cytogenetic, and morphological evidence that this nominal species is composed of three lineage-species: (1) Eastern Atlantic Northeast (Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, eastern Pernambuco, Alagoas); (2) São Francisco and East Atlantic (western Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, northern Espírito Santo); (3) Southeast Atlantic (southern Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais). Ferreira, Serra, Silva, Andrade, and Weber, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 407–409, reported a population in western Bahia, Brazil, in cerrado habitat. Fouquet, Cornuault, Rodrigues, Werneck, Hrbek, Acosta-Galvis, Massemin, Kok, and Ernst, 2022, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 170 (107442): 1–14, confirmed on the basis of molecular analysis the existence of three species under this name. 

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