Glandirana rugosa (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Glandirana > Species: Glandirana rugosa

Rana rugosa Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 110. Syntypes: Not stated but clearly including animls figured on pl. 3, fig. 3, 4 of the original publication; considered by M. Hoogmoed In Hu, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 457, to include RMNH 2064 (9 specimens); BMNH animals reported by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 35, received on exchange from "Leyden Museum" from Japan should be investigated as possible types. Type locality: "Japon"; probably Nagasaki, according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 123. Restricted to "Nagasaki", Japan, by Gee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 32.

Rana (Rana) rugosaNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 49; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 42.

Rana (Rugosa) rugosaDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 322.

Glandirana rugosaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 368.

Rugosa rugosaFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 37. See comment under Ranidae record.

English Names

Wrinkled Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109; Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 99; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 92).

Japanese Wrinkled Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 128).


Honshu (except for the northeast-central part), Shikoku, and Kyushu Islands, Japan; introduced throughout Hawaii, USA.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Japan

Endemic: Japan

Introduced: United States of America, United States of America - Hawaii


In the Rana rugosa group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 42. Section Pelophylax, subgenus Rugosa, according to Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 322. See Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 123–127, and Okada, 1966, Fauna Japon., Anura: 104–112, for review. See comments under Glandirana tientaiensis and Glandirana emeljanovi. Matsui and Wilkinson, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 9–16, discussed relationships of Rana rugosa. Nishioka, Kodama, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1993, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 12: 83–131, provided evidence that four cryptic species existed in Japan under this name. Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 235, suggested that 3–4 species would be elucidated within this complex. Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 96–99, provided an account. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 224–225, reported on the introduced population in Hawaii. Hasegawa, Ueda, and Sumida, 1999, Herpetologica, 55: 318–324, reported on clinal geographic variation in the advertisement call. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 92–94, provided an account for Japan, map, and photograph. Miura, Sekiya, Ohtani, Ogata, and Ichikawa, 2004, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 21: 1271, documented sympatry of two genetically and reproductive distinct populations of "Rana rugosa" on Sado Island, off the west coast of Honshu I., Japan. Ogata, Hasegawa, Ohtani, Mineyama, and Miura, 2008, Heredity, 100: 92–99, discussed XX/WY and ZZ/ZW sex-chromosome-type populations in Japan, suggested at least four lineages in Japan that might be species. Sekiya, Ohtani, Ogata, and Miura, 2010, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 29: 69–78, reported on karyology and more evidence of, minimally, the Sado Island population as a distinct species, with two other populations being the result of hybridization between the 2 species of nominal "Rana rugosa" within Japan. Ohtani, Sekiya, Ogata, and Miura, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 325–330, reported that the Sado Island population is reproductively isolated from the mainland "Rana rugosa". Kraus, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 580–581, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2: 819–821, provided detailed accounts that summarized the relevant literature with special reference to the introduced Hawaii, USA, populations and noted that multiple introduced species may be involved.  Shimada, 2015, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 34: 80–84, compared iris color patter to that in Grandirana susurraAltig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 221–222, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Shimada, Matsui, Ogata, Miura, Tange, Min, and Eto, 2022, Zootaxa, 5174: 25–45, redelimited the species with the naming of Glandirana religuia from northeast-central Honshu, Japan. Introduced populations in Hawaii, USA, discussed and mapped to island by Meshaka, Collins, Bury, and McCallum, 2022, Exotic Amph. Rept. USA: 45–47.

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