Hynobius boulengeri (Thompson, 1912)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius > Species: Hynobius boulengeri

Pachypalaminus boulengeri Thompson, 1912, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 3: 184. Holotype: CAS 33192, by original designation. Type locality: "Odaigahara Mt., Yamato Province, Honshu [Island], Japan".

Pseudosalamandra giga Tago, 1929, Zool. Mag., Tokyo, 41: 431. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 20.

Pseudosalamadra boulengeriTago, 1931, Imori to Sanshio-uo: 36.

Pachypalaminus boulengeriSato, 1937, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, 7: 42; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 407. 

Hynobius (Pachypalaminus) boulengeriNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 13; Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 95–96; Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Hynobius boulengeriThorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 77; Nishio, Matsui, and Tasumi, 1987, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 21: 307–315.

English Names

Boulenger's Oriental Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28).

Odaigahara Mountain Salamander (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 21).

Odaigahara Salamander (Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 10).


Japan on southern Honshu (Kii Peninsula), Kyushu (Mount Sobom Prefecture of Oita), Shikoku, and Amakusa Islands and the Osumi Peninsula (see comment).


Not assigned to species group. Nishikawa, Matsui, Tanabe, and Sato, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 281–294, reported on geographic allozymic variation that suggests that there are four species masquerading under that name. See accounts by Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 96–98, Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 10–12, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 53–54. Nishikawa, Matsui, and Tanabe, 2005, Herpetologica, 61: 54-62, reported on biochemical biogeography in Kyushu, Japan. Nishikawa, Matsui, Tanabe, and Sato, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 752–766, restricted the name Hynobius boulengeri to populations from Honshu and, more problematically, to populations on Kyushu (although evidence suggests that these populations are more closely related to Hynboius stejnegeri) and Amakusa Islands. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 550. Zheng, Peng, Murphy, Kuro-o, Hu, Hu, and Zeng, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 288–302, also suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that Hynobius boulengeri (sensu stricto) is restricted to Honshu Island and the other populations likely belong to unnamed species. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 72, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 56–57, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. 

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