Hynobius Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius
66 species

Hynobius Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 60, 94. Type species: Salamandra nebulosus Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, by monotypy.

Pseudosalamandra Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 56, 91. Type species: Salamandra naevia Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, by monotypy. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 31; Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 125.

Hydroscopes Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: xi. Substitute name for Pseudosalamandra Tschudi, 1838.

Ellipsoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 97. Type species: Salamandra naevia Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, by subsequent designation of Dunn, 1923. Coined as a replacement name to contain Hynobius Tschudi and Pseudosalamandra Tschudi. Synonymy by Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 125; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 31.

Pachypalaminus Thompson, 1912, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 3: 183. Type species: Pachypalaminus boulengeri Thompson, 1912, by original designation. Synonymy by Nakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 13; Nishio, Matsui, and Tasumi, 1987, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 21: 307–315.

Satobius Adler and Zhao, 1990, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 3: 41. Type species: Hynobius retardatus Dunn, 1923, by original designation. Synonymy by Matsui, Sato, Tanabe, and Hayashi, 1992, Herpetologica, 48: 408–416.

Poyarius Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161. Type species: Hynobius formosanus Maki, 1922, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Hynobius.

Makihynobius Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 593. Type genus: Salamandrella sonani Maki, 1922. Coined as a subgenus of Hynobius, identical in content to Poyarius

English Names

Asian Salamanders (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28).

Maki's Hynobiids (Makihynobius: Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 593). 


Japan, Korea, China, Tajikistan.


Japanese species reviewed by Sato, 1943, Monogr. Tailed Batr. Japan: 1–520. Species groups noted in accounts are derived from Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 37 (also Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 42, who provided accounts for most species in Hynobius). See Ikebe, Kuro-o, Ikebe, Katakura, Izumisawa, and Kohno, 1989, in Matsui et al. (eds.), Curr. Herpetol. E. Asia: 85–90, for phylogenetics of 10 species from Korea and Japan. Matsui, Seto, and Miyazaki, 1985, Japan. J. Genet., 60: 119–123, discussed karyotypic relationships among the Korean and Japanese species. Ikebe, Kuro-o, Ohhashi, Yamada, Aoki, and Kohno, 1989, in Matsui et al. (eds.), Curr. Herpetol. E. Asia: 91–94, also reported on karyotipic relationships. Fei and Ye, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 25–36, provided brief accounts for Chinese species. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2006, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 1: 142–175, provided keys, accounts, and diagnoses of Chinese species groups. Chen, Qing, and Zeng, 2008, Sichuan J. Zool., 27: 468–477, discussed systematics and species groups in China. Nishikawa, Jiang, Matsui, Mo, Chen, Kim, Tominaga, and Yoshikawa, 2010, Zootaxa, 2426: 65–67, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Chinese species only. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583 (see comment in Amphibia record) provided as part of a larger molecular analysis a tree of many of the species Hynobius. Zheng, Peng, Murphy, Kuro-o, Hu, Hu, and Zeng, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 288–302, reported on mt DNA relationships. Nishikawa and Matsui, 2014, Zootaxa, 3852: 206, provided a tree of relationships for the Japanese members of Hynobius. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 58–75, provided brief accounts, photos, and maps for the species. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 51–102, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. See accounts of and key to Chinese species by Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 153–185. See Igawa, Okamiya, Ogino, and Nagano, 2020, MtDNA, Part B, 5: 2241–2242, who provided a Bayesian inference tree of 18 species of Hynobius. Borzée and Min, 2021, Animals, 11 (187): 1–36, discussed the phylogenetics of Korean Hynobius, resulting in the naming of three new species. Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 1–738, recognized at generic rank the current subgenera Hynobius, Poyarius, Satobius, and Pachypalaminus; I am not immediately recognizing these arbitrary rank changes pending some sense of the community of salamander systematists. 

Contained taxa (66 sp.):

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