Hynobius kimurae Dunn, 1923

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius > Species: Hynobius kimurae

Hynobius luteopunctatus Hatta, 1914, Zool. Anz., 43: 32. Nomen nudum. Provisionally included in synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 9; Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 17.

Hynobius kimurae Dunn, 1923, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 12: 27. Holotype: MCZ 8546, by original designation. Type locality: "Mt. Heizan, near Kyoto, Hondo", Honshu I., Omi Province, Japan.

Hynobius kimuraiDunn, 1923, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 58: 486. Incorrect subsequent spelling. See comment.

Pseudosalamandra hida Tago, 1929, Zool. Mag., Tokyo, 41: 431. nomen nudum. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 9.

Pseudosalamandra kimuraiTago, 1931, Imori to Sanshio-uo: 36, 181.

Pseudosalamandra hidaPearse, 1932, Ecology, 13: 139.

Hynobius (Hynobius) naevius kimuraiNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 12.

Hynobius kimurae —Matsui In Sengoku, 1979, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 106-107.

Hynobius (Pachypalaminus) kimuraeDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Hynobius (Makihynobius) kimurae — Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 593. 

Pachypalaminus kimurae — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 407. 

English Names

Hondo Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28).

Hida Salamander (Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 14).


Mountains of Aichi Prefecture in the western part of Chubu District westwards to Kinki and Chugoku districts, central to western Honshu, Japan. 


In the Hynobius naevius group of Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 37. Nakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 12, noted that subsequent emendation to incorrect Hynobius kimurai. These authors considered Hynobius kimurae to be a subspecies of Hynobius naevius, but this was rejected by Matsui IN Sengoku, 1979, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 106-107. Matsui, Misawa, Nishikawa, and Tanabe, 2000, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B—Comp. Biochem., 125: 115-125, examined genetic divergence between Hynobius kimurae and Hynobius naevius and considered them distinct, and noted that Hynobius kimurae is composed of two genetically distinct populations, an eastern one, and a central and western one. See accounts by Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 83-84, Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 14-16, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 52. Brandon-Jones, Duckworth, Jenkins, Rylands, and Sarmiento, 2007, Zootaxa, 1541: 41-48, discussed the nomenclatural principles that prevent kimurae from being emendable to kimurai. Matsui, Misawa, and Nishikawa, 2009, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 26: 87-95, reported on morphological geographic variation. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 74–75, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 71–72, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species.  Okamiya, Sugawara, Nagano, and Poyarkov, 2018, PeerJ, 5084: 1–40, reported on mtDNA, nuDNA, and morphological variation, resulting in the partition of the species into a restricted Hynobius kimurae and a new Hynobius fossigenus, which means that much of the literature noted here may be in part referable to that species. 

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