Hynobius naevius (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius > Species: Hynobius naevius

Salamandra naevia Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 122. Syntypes: Not stated, but clearly including animals figured in pl. 4, figs. 4-6, and Pl. 5, figs. 9-10 of the original publication; including RMNH 2305 (2 larvae), 2306 (12 adults), MNHNP 4690 (according to Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 93, and Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 46), NHMW 22907 (according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 16, and Gemel, Gassner, and Schweiger, 2019, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Ser. B, 121: 43), MCZ 7365 (according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 334), CAS 64467-68 (according to Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 46), ZMUC (according to Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 46), and BMNH 1838. (by museum records); RMNH 2306A designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 96. Type locality: "Japon"; given as "dans les provinces Sagami, Sinano, Tanba, Tazima et Tosa", Honshu and Shikoku Is., Japan, by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 96; restricted (apparently in error) to "Mimasaku, Bizen, Okayama", Japan, by Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 55. Tominaga and Matsui, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 940-944, discussed why (p. 944) "Probably they [the syntypes] were collected from suburbs or adjacent localities of the city of Nagasaki" in northwestern Kyushu, Japan, and why previous restriction of the type locality are in error.

Pseudosalamandra naeviaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 92.

Molge naeviaBonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 26): unnumbered.

Ellipsoglossa naeviaDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 99.

Hynobius naeviusCope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 125; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 32.

Hynobius (Hynobius) naevius naeviusNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 11.

Hynobius (Hynobius) naeviusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Hynobius (Makihynobius) naevius —  Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 593. 

English Names

Sagami Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28).

Japanese Salamander (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 21).

Blotched Salamander (Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 18).


Mountainous regions of northwestern Kyushu Is., Japan.


In the Hynobius naevius group. See accounts by Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 75-79, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 51-52. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 18-20, provided an account, map, and photograph. Tominaga, Matsui, Nishikawa, Tanabe, and Sato, 2005, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 33: 921-937, provided allozyme evidence of two species under this name, one in Chugoku and northern Kyushu and another in Shikoku, southern Kyushu, and Chubu-Kinki, the latter of which subsequently was identifed by Tominaga and Matsui, 2008, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 25: 107-114, as Hynobius yatsui. Tominaga, Matsui, Nishikawa, Tanabe, and Sato, 2005, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 22: 1229-1244, discussed morphological divergence of the two genetic groups under Hynobius naevius. Tominaga, Matsui, Nishikawa, and Tanabe, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 38: 677-684, suggested on the basis of mtDNA studies that four groups were consistently recognizable: (1) northwestern Kyushu; (2) Chugoku and northeastern Kyushu; (3) western Shikoku and Kyushu; and (4) Chubu-Kinki and central-eastern Shikoku. Sakamoto, Nishikawa, and Matsui, 2005, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 24: 67-77, reported on an unnamed species under this name from central Honshu, inferred from allozymes and morphology. Tominaga and Matsui, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 940-944, documented that the name Hynobius naevius applies to the northwestern Kyushu population and that the other populations from 1) Chugoku and northeastern Kyushu; 2) southwestern and central Honshu I. and 3) all of Shikoku represent unnamed species. See comment under Hynobius yatsui. Zheng, Peng, Murphy, Kuro-o, Hu, Hu, and Zeng, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 288-302, also reported on evidence of cryptic species related to nominal Hynobius naevius. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 71, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 77–79, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species.  Tominaga, Matsui, and Nishikawa, 2019, Zootaxa, 4550: 525–544, revised the Hynobius naevius group, naming Hynobius semanotus and Hynobius oyamai

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