Hynobius tokyoensis Tago, 1931

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius > Species: Hynobius tokyoensis

Hynobius tokyoesis Tago, 1929, Zool. Mag., Tokyo, 41: 430. Nomen nudum.

Hynobius tokyoensis Tago, 1931, Imori to Sanshio-uo: 114, pl. 10. Holotype: TIU 805, now lost; by implication of statements by Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2, that collection destroyed in WWII. Type locality: Tanishimura, Nishitama County, Tokyo Prefecture, Japan. Given as "Nishitama, Tokyo", Japan by Okada, 1934, Copeia, 1934: 17.

Hynobius tokyoeusis Tago, 1931, Imori to Sanshio-uo: 35. Incorrect original spelling.

Hynobius (Hynobius) nebulosus tokyoensisNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 7. Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 48.

Hynobius tokyoensisOkouchi, 1979, in Sengoku (ed.), Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 98.

Hynobius (Hynobius) tokyoensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

English Names

Tokyo Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 32).


Four isolated populations: (1) central Saitama Prefecture to western and Tokyo Prefecture; (2) southeastern Kanagawa Prefecture; (3)southern and eastern Chiba Prefecture; and (4) central to southwestern Tochigi Prefecture, all on east-central Honshu, Japan.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Japan

Endemic: Japan


In the Hynobius nebulosus group by implication. Matsui, Nishikawa, Tanabe, and Misawa, 2001, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B—Comp. Biochem., 130: 181-189, documented that populations of the type locality of Hynobius tokyoensis are more closely related to Hynobius lichenatus than to other populations of "Hynobius tokyoensis" from the Nagoya Region, which are more closely related to Hynobius nebulosus. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 51-52, provided a brief account. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 3234, provided an account, map, and photograph. See brief account by Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 47-48. Ogano, Kasahara, Yagi, Tanaka, and Yoshino, 2007, Bull. Herpetol. Soc. Japan, 2007: 9-14, discussed the range and population status in Chiba Prefecture. Matsui, Tominaga, Hayashi, Misawa, and Tanabe, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 44: 204-207, reported on phylogeography and suggested that Hynobius tokyoensis is the sister taxon of Hynobius nebulosus and together the sister taxon of Hynobius lichenatus. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 552. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 70, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 93–95, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. Matsui, Misawa, Yoshikawa, and Nishikawa, 2022, Zootaxa, 5168: 207–221, attached the name Hynobius tokyoensis to their clade B and named Hynobius sengokui for their clade A. Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 101–103, provided an account, summarizing systematics, life history, population status, and distribution (including a polygon map). 

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