Hynobius tsuensis Abé, 1922

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Hynobius > Species: Hynobius tsuensis

Hynobius tsuensis Abé, 1922, Zool. Mag., Tokyo, 34: 331. Syntypes: Not designated, but including ZIHU 1016a, 2 others not traced. ZIHU 1016a considered "type" by Sato, 1937, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, 7: 36, and considered holotype by Brame and Gorham, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 17. Type locality: Southern Tsushima, Japan; given as "Izuhara, Tsushima", Japan by Sato, 1937, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, 7: 36.

Hynobius bicolor Dunn, 1923, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 12: 28. Holotype: CAS 26447, by original designation. Type locality: "Tsushima, South Island, in the Korean straits", Japan. Synonymy by Dunn, 1923, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 58: 490; Okada, 1934, Copeia, 1934: 18.

Hynobius tagoi Dunn, 1923, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 12: 29. Holotype: CAS 26563, by original designation. Type locality: "Tsushima, North Island", in Korean straits, Japan. Synonymy by Mori, 1928, Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. J., 6: 2; Oyama, 1930, Annot. Zool. Japon., 12: 443; Oyama, 1930, Copeia, 1930: 155-156; Tago, 1934, Zool. Mag., Tokyo, 46: 214-224.

Hynobius leechii tagoiMori, 1928, Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. J., 6: 2.

Hynobius nebulosus tsuensisMori, 1928, Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. J., 6: 2.

Hynobius tsuensisOyama, 1930, Copeia, 1930: 156.

Hynobius (Hynobius) tsuensisNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 7. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

English Names

Tsushima Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 34).


North and South Is. of Tsushima, Japan.


In the Hynobius nebulosus group. See comments by Oyama, 1930, Copeia, 1930: 155-156, regarding its taxonomic history. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 52-54, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 48, provided brief accounts. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 66–67, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 95–96, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. Niwa, Kuro-o, and Nishikawa, 2021, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 38: 259–266 (mtDNA; cyt b) and Niwa, Yoshikawa, Nishikawa, and Matsui, 2022, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 41: 125–131 (microsatellite data) found that nominal Hynobius tsuensis is composed of two independent lineages. These authors did not investigate the application of the two species names in synonymy. Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 90–92, provided an account, summarizing systematics, life history, population status, and distribution (including a polygon map), and also noting that the name Hynobius tagoi might be available for the second lineage. 

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