Salamandrella tridactyla Nikolskii, 1905

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Salamandrella > Species: Salamandrella tridactyla

Isodactylium schrenckii Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 56. Holotype: Not stated; ZISP 110 (one specimen, now lost from Kunstkamer) ZISP 111 (one specimen from Kunstkamer), ZISP 112–113 and 114 (specimen now lost) (from Fl. Schilka” [Shilka river, Transbaikal, Russia], ZISP 115 (from "Str. Agdeki ad Ussuri" = vicinity of the village of Agdeki (= Kukolevo, Khabarovskrai), situated on the Ussuri River south of therailroad station Dormidontovka Podkhorenok River mouth (less than 20 km from the railroad station Dormididontova); ZISP 116 (2 specimens from "Sibiria orientalis” [Eastern Siberia, Russia]), ZISP 117 (1 specimen, now lost, from “Fl. Schilka” [Shilka river, Transbaikal, Russia]), ZISP 118 (1 specimen, now lost, from “Lac. Baikal” [Baikal lake, Eastern Siberia, Russia]), and ZISP 119 (1 specimen, “Des. Kirgisior.?”), according to Milto and Barabanov, 2011, Russ. J. Herpetol., 18: 138. ZISP records note one syntype, catalogue number unknown) sent to BMNH. Type localities: "Ost-Siberien, am Ussuri, an der Schilka und am Baikal-See" (East Siberia, Ussuri River, and the Shilka River, and Lake Baikal), Russia. Corrected to "Nizhnii Tagil (Nischne Tagilsk) Town in Sverdlovskaya Province (Urals)", Russia, by Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452. ZISP 2015 designated lectotype by designated lectotype by Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275–278. Lectotype from ""Str. Agdeki ad Ussuri" = vicinity of the village of Agdeki (= Kukolevo, Khabarovskrai), situated on the Ussuri River south of therailroad station Dormidontovka Podkhorenok River mouth (less than 20 km from the railroad station Dormididontova). Named as a junior synonym of Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowskii, 1870, according to Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452, and therefore unavailable. See comment under Salamandrella tridactyla

Salamandrella keyserlingii var. tridactyla Nikolskii, 1905, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 8, 17: 491. Holotype: ZISP 2279, according to Borkin, 1994, in Vorobyeva and Darevsky (eds.), Siberskii uglozub (Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870): 34. Type locality: "Wladiwostok" (= Vladivostok), Russia. Given as Orlinoe Gnezdo Hill, Vladivostok City, Russia, according to Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452. Placed by DRF in this synonymy provisionally on the basis of discussion of evidence provided by Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427–429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275–278 (English version), and Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84–93.

Salamandrella keyserlingii var. Kalinowskiana Dybowski, 1928, Bull. Internatl. Acad. Polon. Sci. Lettr. Class. Sci. Math. Nat. Ser. B, Sci. Nat., 1927: 1080. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Südussurilande" = South Ussuriland, Russia. Status as distinct from Salamandrella keyserlingii rejected by Chang, 1936, Contr. Etude Morphol. Biol. Syst. Amph. Urodeles Chine: 69. Placed by DRF in this synonymy provisionally on the basis of discussion of evidence provided by Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427–429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275–278 (English version), and Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84–93.

Salamandrella schrenckii — Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427–429

Salamandrella keyserlingii tridactylaKuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452.

Salamandrella schrenckii — Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427-429; Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84–93. Name unavailable due to being named as a junior synonym of Salamandrella keyserlingii

Salamandrella tridactyla — Malyarchuk, Derenko, Berman, Perkova, Grzybowski, Lejrikh, and Bulakhova, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 562–571, by implication. 

English Names

Far East Salamander (Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 186). 

Distribution

Primorie and the Ussuri Basin of Far East Russia; into adjacent northeastern P.D.R. Korea; Heilonjiang (counties of Aihui, Beian, Daxinganling, Harbin, Hulin, Huma, Mao'ershan, Mohe, Muling, and Wudalianchi), Neimongol (Genhe and Hulunbuirmeng), Jilin (Baihe, Changehun, Dunhua, Jiaohe, Songhuahu, and Wangqing), Liaoning (Changtu and Kangping), questionably extending into Henan (Shangcheng), China. 

Comment

Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427-429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275-278 (English version), removed Isodactylium schrenckii , thought to apply to the Primorie species, from the synonymy of Salamandrella keyserlingii, where it had been named as a junior synonym and also placed by Günther, 1871, Zool. Rec., 7: 80; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 34. Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84-93, studied the molecular systematics and found Salamandrella tridactyla (as Salamandrella schrenckii) to be restricted to Far East Russia, with sampled populations in northeastern China to be Salamandrella keyserlingii. The status of the various synonyms of Salamandrella keyserlingii in Manchuria require evaluation as to which species they apply (DRF). Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 56, provided a brief account. Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447-452, discussed the nomenclatural history of the names and concluded that Isodactylium schrenckii is unavailable due to being named as a junior synonym of Salamandrella keyserlingii and that the oldest name for the Far East/Primorie taxon is Salamandrella keyserlingii tridactyla. Poyarkov and Kuzmin, 2008, Russ. J. Genet., 44: 948-958, applied the Biological Species Concept in considering these two taxa to be subspecies, although no evidence of gene flow between the two populations is known, making species recognition the most conservative position to take for the moment. Malyarchuk, Derenko, Berman, Perkova, Grzybowski, Lejrikh, and Bulakhova, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 562-571, considered Salamandrella tridactyla (in error as Salamandrella schrenckii) as distinct species. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 57–58, and Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 50–55, provided accounts. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 145–146, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. Malyarchuk, Derenko, and Denisova, 2015, Russ. J. Genet., 51: 101–108, reported on aspects of phylogeography of the species (as Salamandrella schrenckii) and provided a distribution map. See account, photograph, and map by Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 187–190. Dot map and discussion of status for North Korea (as Salamandrella keyserlingii) provided by Song, 2016, J. Natl. Park Res., Rep. Korea, 7: 211–217. Borzée, Litvinchuk, Ri, Andersen, Nam, Jon, Man, Choe, Kwon, Othman, Messenger, Bae, Shin, Kim, Maslova, Luedtke, Hobin, Moores, Seliger, Glenk, and Jang, 2021, Animals, 11 (2057): 1–37, provided locality records, a distribution map as well as modeled distribution, life history comments, and conservation status for P.D.R. Korea

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