Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bombinatoridae > Genus: Bombina > Species: Bombina bombina

Rana bombina Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svec.: 101. Syntypes: Holm, 1957, Uppsala Univ. Arsskrift, 1957: 5–68, stated that there are two specimens in the Alströmer collection, which now belongs to the ZIUU, that might be syntypes. The status of these specimens is questionable; see comment below. Type locality: "Scaniae compestris fossis australibus".

Bufo igneus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 29, 129. Type(s): By indication frogs illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 22, 23. Type locality: "Habitat in paludibus nostris Danubialibus ingenti in copia; autumno omnis via, qua itur in Nusdorff, iisdem scatet"; rendered as "Strasse zweischen Nussdorf und Wien" (= Between Nussdorf and Vienna), by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 39. Synonymy by Suckow, 1798, Anfang. Theoret. Angwewant. Naturgesch. Thiere, Amph.: 66; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 116; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 76; Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 436; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 175; Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 234; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 84; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 447.

Buffo ignicolor Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 595. Substitute name for Bufo igneus Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Bufo bombinus —Latreille In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 110. Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 75, pl. 36; Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 234.

Rana igneaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 116.

Bufo pluvialis Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: pl. 26. Substitute name for Rana bombina Linnaeus, 1761.

Rana cruenta Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 12. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Central Russia; for discussion of the type locality see Kuzmin, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 51–53. Synonymy by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 167; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 356.

Bombinator igneusMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 179. Schlegel, 1826, Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., Paris, Ser. 2, 9: 239; Wiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 201; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 95.

Bombina igneaSturm, 1828, Deutschl. Fauna, Amph.: heft 1.

Bufo (Bombinator) bombinaCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Bombitator bombinusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 206, by implication; Glückselig, 1851, Lotos, Prague, 1: 224.

Bufo cruentusDvigubsky, 1832, Opyt Estestvennoi Istorii Gady: 35.

Bufo bombinusSchinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 234.

Bufo bombinaSchinz, 1837, Neue Denkschr. Allg. Schweiz. Ges. Naturwiss., 1: 145.

Bombinator igneusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 447.

Bombinator bombinaBedriaga, 1890 "1889", Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, N.S.,, 3: 581. Poche, 1912, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 405.

Bombinator variegatus bombinaPrazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 218.

Bombina bombinaStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 51. Mertens, 1923, Senckenb. Biol., 5: 214.

Bombina bombina danubialis Calinescu, 1931, Mem. Sect. Sciin. Acad. Româna Bucaresti, Ser. 3, 7: 135. Syntypes: 16 specimens, not stated but presumably originally in MGAB. Type locality: "strânse de mine în Lunca Mofleni, lânga Caiova, judetul Dolj", Romania.

Bombina bombina var. viridis Marián, 1959, Vert. Hungar., 1: 158. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: Not stated.

Bombina (Bombina) bombinaTian and Hu, 1985, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 4 (3): 219–224. Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 97.

Bombina bombina arifiyensi Özeti and Yilmaz, 1987, J. Fac. Sci. Ege Univ., Izmir, Ser. B, 9: 41–49. Holotype: SZE 9/1983-11, by original designation. Type locality: "Arifiye", northwestern Anatolia, Türkiye.

English Names

Ringing Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 235).

Fiery Toad (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 306).

Fire Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 116).

Fire-bellied Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 53; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 60; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 61; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 43; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 193; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 61).

Firebelly Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 38).

European Fire-bellied Toad (Halliday and Adler, 2002, New Encyclop. Rept. Amph.: 82).


Central and eastern Europe from Denmark and central Germany east to the Ural Mountains and south to the Caucasus Mountains; in the north to the Gulf of Finland; European and northwestern Asiatic Türkiye; specimens from Sweden are probably introduced; introduced in Mosella, France. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Türkiye, Ukraine

Introduced: France, Sweden


This species maintains stable hybrid zones in Poland with Bombina variegata according to Szymura, 1976, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci. Biol., 24: 355–368; Gollmann, 1984, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch., 22: 51–64, and Szymura, Spolsky, and Uzzell, 1985, Experientia, 41: 1469–1470 and in Hungary according to Gollmann, 1987, Amphibia-Reptilia, 8: 213–224. See accounts by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 193–201, and Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 110–114, for the former USSR. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 253–257, provided an account and polygon map. Gollmann, Pialek, Szymura, and Arntzen, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 96–97, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 61, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 107–111, provided an account for Turkish populations. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 249–262, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 102-105, provided an account for the Belarus population. Vörös, Alcobendas, Martínez-Solano, and García-París, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 38: 705–718, reported on mtDNA introgression of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata in the Carpathian Basin. Fijarczyk, Nadachowska, Hofman, Litvinchuk, Babik, Stuglik, Gollmann, Choleva, Cogǎlniceanu, Vukov, Džukić, and Szymura, 2011, Mol. Ecol., 20: 3381–3390, discussed the phylogeographic distinctiveness of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 153–158, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35–57, provided a dot map for Romania. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 133–134, provided a brief account and distribution map. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 43, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology as well as a range map and photograph. Vacher, Aumaître, and Ursenbacher, 2020, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 15: 47–54, reported on the genetics of an introduced population in Moselle, France. Yaşar, Çiçek, Mulder, and Tok, 2021, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 17(e201512): 232–275, discussed and grid-mapped the range in Türkiye. Dufresnes, Suchan, Smirnov, Denoël, Rosanov, and Litvinchuk, 2021, J. Biogeograph., 48: 548–560, reported on hybridization and introgression with Bombina variegata in Poland and Ukraine. Mollov, Natchev, Koynova, Kambourov, Rashkov, Dimitrov, Todorov, Petrova, Vladov, and Uzunov, 2022, Ecol. Balkanica, Spec. Edit. 5: 43–74, discussed the presence of this species in protected areas of southeastern Bulgaria. Gál, Kovács, Ujszegiu, Anthony, Vági, and Hoffmann, 2022, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 18: 51–57, reported on a hybrid zone with Bombina variegata in the Carpathian Basin of Hungary and Slovakia. Nekrasova and Marushchak, 2023, Biodiversity Data J., 11(e99036): 1–15, modeled the distribution in Ukraine.    

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