Bufotes viridis (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes viridis

Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27, 111. Type(s): Including frog figured on pl. 1, fig. 1 of original publication. Type locality: "inter fissuras, seu cavernas murorum obscuras Viennae", Austria.

Bufo schreberianus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Saxonia prope Monasterium". Synonymy by Suckow, 1798, Anfang. Theoret. Angwewant. Naturgesch. Thiere, Amph.: 74 (with Rana variabilis); Latreille in Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 116; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 79; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 449; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 553; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 297.

Rana variabilis Pallas, 1769, Spicilegia Zool., Fasc. 7: 1, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2. Types: Including frogs "in Edleri Museo" as well as frog figured in tab. 6, figs. 3 and 4, according to the original; if type material is lost, noted as the frog illustrated from Lübeck according to Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259. Type locality: "Lubecae" = Lübeck, Germany. Stated by Pallas, 1777, Naturgesch. Merkwuerd. Thiere, 7 [Pallas' own German translation of Pallas, 1769, Spicilegia Zool., Fasc. 7], to have been originally coined as a synonym of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1789, although there is no mention of Laurenti's work in the original description. Synonymy by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 19

Rana bufina Müller, 1776, Zool. Danica Prodr. Animal. Dan. Norveg.: 35. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Daniae et Norvegia". Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58. Placed in this synonymy on the basis of geography (DRF).

Buffo viridisLacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618. Rejected as nonbinominal works by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Buffo viridi-radiatus Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 355, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: table following page 618 and referencing account on page 588. Substitute name for Bufo schreberianus Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 411.

Bufo bufina — Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 17.

Rana viridisLindaker, 1791, Neuere Abh. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 1: 111.

Bufo viridisSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 200.

Rana picta Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 9. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Catharinoslaw [now = Dnepropetrovsk City], Ukraine. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis). Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 99. Synonymy considered tentative by Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 494, but see discussion by Kuzmin, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 49.

Batrachus fuscus — Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102.

Bufo fuscus Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208, who placed it in the synonymy of Bufo variabilis and attributed it in error to Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): XXX. . Unavailable name for nomenclatural purposes according to Opinion 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1-42).

Bufo bufonina — Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo schreberiOken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208. Incorrect subsequent spelling. Unavailable name for nomenclatural purposes according to Opinion 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1-42).

Bufo roseus Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 183. Types: Based on frog described by "Meyer, Thiere m. Skel., I. S. 35. t. 53". Type locality: "Germaniae aquis". Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis).

Bufo variabilis — Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180; Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.

Bufo pictusDvigubsky, 1832, Opyt Estestvennoi Istorii Gady: 35.

Bufo longipes Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 449. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "Dalmatia". Name coined in synonymy of Bufo viridis and alternatively as a possible variety of Bufo viridis, with the name attributed to Fitzinger, presumably on the basis of a jar label or manuscript name. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 228.

Phrynoidis variabilis — Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 353, who erroneously ascribed the combination to &lt. Bufo viridis Laurenti.

Bufo viridis var. lineata Ninni, 1879, Atti Ist. R. Venet. Sci. Lett., Ser. 5, 5: 973. Syntypes: "collezione zoologica del civico Museo di Venezia" (= MVEN 5 specimens, according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62). Type locality: "Venezia", Italy. Balletto, Bologna, and Giacoma, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 296-305, considered this the available name for the taxon now called Bufotes balearicus. Stöck, Sicilia, Belfiore, Buckley, Lo-Brutto, Lo-Valvo, and Arculeo, 2008, BMC Evol. Biol., 8(56) 1-19; by implication, considered this name to be a junior synonym of Bufo viridis. Razzetti, 2008, in Corti (ed.), Herpetol. Sardiniae: 420-424, suggested that this name may ultimately be found to be a senior synonym of Bufo sicula Stöck, Sicilia, Belfiore, Buckley, Lo-Brutto, Lo-Valvo, and Arculeo, 2008, but that further resolution of the ranges of the two taxa is warranted. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecific category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo viridis viridisMertens, 1926, Senckenb. Biol., 8: 258.

Bufo viridis var. raseusPavlov, 1933, Publ. Mus. Hoang Ho Pai Ho, Tien-Tsin, 23: 6. Presumably an incorrect subsequent spelling of Bufo roseus, but also ascribed incorrectly to "Camerans" (likely Camerano—DRF).

Pseudepidalea viridisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo lineataBalletto, Bologna, and Giacoma, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 299. Incorrect gender of the species name.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) viridis viridisRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, and Shafiei, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44.

Bufo lineatusSpeybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 6-7.

Bufo (Bufotes) viridisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilis — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilis variabilis — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes viridis — Frost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6 Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes variabilis — Frost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

 

English Names

Brown Toad (Bufo fuscus [no longer recognized]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 301).

Green Toad (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 296; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 168; Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 180; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 74; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 46; Roth, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 122; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 76).

European Green Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 76; Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 53; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Changeable Toad (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64).

Varying Toad (Rana variabilisLacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 298; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153).

Variable Toad (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 167; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 46).

Distribution

Throughout the Balkan Peninsula to the western (Germany and eastern France), northern (southern Sweden) and eastern parts of Europe (to the Urals), with the eastern limit being the Volga River drainage in Russia; reaches northwestern Anatolia, and was introduced in western Siberia (Novosibirsk oblast’, Russia). 

Comment

A diploid species in the Bufo viridis group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 63, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. For discussion and definition of the Bufo viridis complex and Bufo viridis subgroup see Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 254, and Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663-689. Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 81, noted that Bufo viridis sensu stricto is a diploid taxon. Balletto, Borkin, Castellano, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Giacoma, Lattes, and Odierna, 2000, Riv. Idrobiol., 38: 199-220, reviewed the literature of the Bufo viridis complex and provided a discussion of phylogenetics. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 107-110, reported on the Italian populations as Bufo viridis, which presumably are now, except for the northeastern part of the country, assigned to Bufotes balearicus. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 297301, provided an account and polygon map for Europe. Extinct in Switzerland, although being reintroduced (D. Hofer, personal commun.). Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 289–295, reported on Swedish populations (as Bufo viridis). Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 115-118, provided an account for the Belarus population. Korky, 2004, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40: 161-174, reported on larval variation in Poland. Özdemir and Kutrup, 2007, Herpetozoa, Wien, 20: 3–10, regarded their Izmir, Turkey (now reassigned to Bufotes sitibundus), and Ukraine samples as Bufo viridisStojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 189-196, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 155–157, provided a brief account and range map. Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 1–25, summarized the phylogenetics and biogeography of this diploid species. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 76, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map (seemingly done before the 2019 revision), as well as a photograph. 

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