Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Günther, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus himalayanus

Bufo melanostictus var. himalayanus Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 422. Syntypes: BMNH. BMNH 53.8.12.31, 58.6.24.1 considered a syntype by Inger, 1985, In Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 48; this discussed by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 148, who noted that several other specimens had been in the syntypic series, and designated BMNH 58.6.24.1 as lectotype. Type locality: "in the Himalayas (in Sikkim and Nepal)"; lectotype from "Nepal".

Bufo himalayanusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 305.

Bufo abatus Ahl, 1925, Zool. Anz., 63: 110. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered in original publication; stated to be ZMB 28016, now lost, by Inger, 1985, In Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 38; ZMB 4581 (a former paratype) designated neotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 156. Type locality: "Darjeeling", West Bengal, India. Neotype is from "Himalaya". Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 159.

Duttaphrynus himalayanusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Himalaya Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28).

Himalayan Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 158; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 11).

Himalayan Broad-skulled Toad (Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 293).

Günther's High Altitude Toad (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 23).

Darjeeling Toad (Bufo abatus [no longer recognized] Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Ahl's Toad (Bufo abatus [no longer recognized]: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Distribution

Extreme northwestern Yunnan (China), Azad Kashmir (Pakistan), Nepal, and India (Himanchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, and Manipur), and adjacent Bangladesh; Gasa District, Bhutan; presumably also in adjacent Myanmar.

Comment

In the Bufo melanostictus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107; Dubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341–410 (who provided an account), and: 77–85, and previous authors. See Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 149–150, for an account. Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 100–102, Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 45–46, Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130–131, Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 293–294, Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 42, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 23, provided brief accounts. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 56–61, Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 71, and Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 291, provided brief accounts for India. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 70–71. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 146–148, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 95–96. Li, Lu, Li, Zhao, Hou, and Zhang, 2005, Sichuan J. Zool., 24: 247, provided additional localities in Xizang. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 507–511, provided an account for China and a spot map. Mehta, 2005, in Alfred (ed.), Fauna W. Himalaya, Part 2: 270, reported the species in Himanchal Pradesh, India, without noting specific localities. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 9–10, provided a brief characterization and photograph and did not include Himanchal Pradesh, India, within the range. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 229, provided a brief account (as Bufo himalayanus) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28–29, provided an account for Xizang, China, as Bufo himalayanus. The status of Bufo cyphlosus Ye is controversial: considered a synonym of Bufo himalayanus by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102, and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128, this rejected by Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 111, and Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 181. Fang and Zhao, 1992, in Jiang (ed.), Collect. Pap. Herpetol.: 77–88, and Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 133–180. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 128–129, provided a brief account, figure, and map as Bufo cyphlosus. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 500–503, provided an account (as Bufo cyphosus) for China, illustration of the holotype, and spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 223, provided a brief account (as Bufo cyphosus) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28–29, provided an account for Xizang, China. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 32, for brief account for Nepal. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval larval descriptions (as Bufo abatus) and several of various levels of completeness for Bufo himalayanus).  Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 257, 260, provided accounts (as Duttaphrynus cyphosus: 257; as Duttaphrynus himalayanus: 260), photographs, and a range map for China. Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 1, provided records for Sikkim, India. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 772–774, provided an account, photograph, and dot map for the nominal species. Wangyal and Gurung, 2012, Frog Leg, 18: 35, provided a record from Gasa district, Bhutan. Roy, Begum, and Ahmed, 2019, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: 12943, noted an unidentified Duttaphrynus from Arunachal Pradesh that likely applies to this species (DRF). Liao, Tang, Peng, Jiang, You, and Chen, 2020, MtDNA, Part B, 5: 740–741, reported on the mtDNA genome. Gautam, Chalise, Thapa, and Bhattarai, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 18–28, briefly discussed abundance and elevational range in the Ghandruk region of central Nepal. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.