Epidalea calamita (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Epidalea > Species: Epidalea calamita

Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27, 119. Types: frog(s) illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 24. Type locality: "in variis latebris terrae rimis, murorum cavis, ac foraminibus"; restricted to "Mitteldeutschland" (= central Germany) by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 18; restricted to "Nürnberg", Germany by Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 17. See nomenclatural discussion by Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Rana foetidissima Hermann, 1783, Tab. Aff. Animal. Acad. Spec.: 260. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated. Synonymy by Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57 (not mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2. Note: It is not clear in the original publication that "Ranae foetidissimae" is anything other than a vernacular generalization, rather than the coining of a new name.—DRF.

Rana portentosa Blumenbach, 1788, Handb. Naturgesch., Ed. 3: 262. Substitute name for Bufo calamita. Synonymy by Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 284; Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; (not mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.

Rana ecaudata Razoumovsky, 1789, Hist. Nat. Jorat, 1: 281. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "environs de Crissier", Switzerland. Synonymy by Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 402.

Bufo cruciatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 193. Types: specimen figured Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24. Type locality: "Germania". Synonymy by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 77; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 153; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294.

Rana mephitica Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 143. Types: Based in part on the specimen figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24, fig. 1. Type locality: "Germany". Synonymy by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 435; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 681; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.

Bufo portentosaLeunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.

Epidalea calamitaCope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 181; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo calamita var. alpestris Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 169. Type(s): Not mentioned, but presumably originally in SMF. Type locality: "dieselbe bei Dillenburg und Herborn, vereinzelt an höheren trockenen Bergen der Lahngegend", Germany.

Bufo viridis var. calamitaCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Bufo (Neobufo) calamita — Bolkay, 1919, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 31: 295. 

Bufo (Epidalea) calamitaDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufo Garsault, 1764.

English Names

Mephitic Toad (Rana mephitica [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 149).

Natter Jack (Fleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 159; Jenyns, 1835, Manual Brit. Vert. Animals: 302; Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 420; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 45).

Natterjack (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 167; Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 181; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 73; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Beebee, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 121; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 74).

Calamite (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 304).

Natter-jack Toad (Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 116).

Natterjack Toad (Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 45; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 271).

Running Toad (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 37).

Distribution

Western and northern Europe as far east as western Russia and including parts of England and Ireland (in the south-west of the country in County Kerry and one small introduced population to the south-east of the country in County Wexford) 

Comment

In the Bufo calamita group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 63. In the Bufo viridis group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See accounts by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 271-275, and Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 165–167, for the former USSR.. Beebee, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 120-121, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Barbadillo-Escrivá, 1987, Guia INCAFO Anf. Rept. Peninsula Iberica: 155-159, provided an account for the Iberian populations. Beebee and Rowe, 2000, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 69: 367-381, discussed phylogeography of the taxon. Stöck, Bretschneider, and Grosse, 2001 "2000", Russ. J. Herpetol., 7: 215-226, compared bioacoustics with that of the Bufo viridis subgroup and Bufo raddei. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 293-297, provided an account and polygon map. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 74-75, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Tejedo and Reques, 1997, in Pleguezuelos (ed.), Dist. Biogeogr. Anf. Rep. Esp. Portugal: 155-157, provided a brief account, photograph, and detailed map for Iberia. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 285-289, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 118-120, provided an account for Belarus populations. Llorente, Montori, Santos, and Carretero, 1995, Atlas Amf. Rept. Catalunya Andorra: 69-71, provided an account and detailed range map for Catalunya. Rowe, Harris, and Beebee, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 39: 335-346, reported on the phylogeography of this species and its Pleistocene refugia. Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records for Bulgaria. Korky, 2008, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 32: 21-31, discussed biology and declines in Ireland. Verboom, Musters, and van der Lugt, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 174-185, provided a detailed account for the Netherlands. Rivera, Escoriza, Maluquer-Margalef, Arribas, and Carranza, 2011, Amf. Rept. Catalunya: 78-81, provided a brief account (as Bufo calamita) for northeastern Spain and adjacent France. Korky and Webb, 1999, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 23: 2-52, reported on distribution, biogeography, and conservation in Ireland. Korky and Webb, 2001, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 25: 144-167, reported on geographic variation in larvae in Ireland. Gleed-Owen, Marnell, and Korky, 1999, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 23: 53-59, discussed the colonization of Ireland. Korky and Smallwood, 2006, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 30: 11-27, discussed larval differences between Poland and Ireland and discussed the post-glacial expansion of the range. Korky, 2011, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 35: 10-20, reported on breeding habitat in southwestern Ireland. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 152–154, provided a brief account and range map. Beebee, 2018, Herpetol. J., 28: 51–62, discussed genetic studies relating to conservation in Britain. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 81, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph. Reyne, McFarlane, Marnell, Helyar, and Reid, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 479–482, provided new records for Ireland and discussed the range in that country. Vlček, Zavadil, and Gvoždík, 2020, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 14 (3: e254): 62–69, provided a record from Czech Silesia and discussed conservation need for this population. 

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