Espadarana audax (Lynch and Duellman, 1973)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Centrolenidae > Subfamily: Centroleninae > Genus: Espadarana > Species: Espadarana audax

Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman, 1973, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 16: 16. Holotype: KU 146624, by original designation. Type locality: "Salto de Agua, 2.5 km NNE Río Reventador on Quito--Lago Agrio road, 1660 m, Provincia Napo, Ecuador".

Centrolene audaxRuiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania, 57: 19.

Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 155: 4. Holotype: KU 211770, by original designation. Type locality: "west slope of Abra Tangarana, 7 km (by road) northeast of San Juan de Pacaysapa (06° 12′S, 76° 44′ W, 1080 m), Provincia Lamas, Departamento San Martín, Perú". Synonymy by Cisneros-Heredia and Guayasamin, 2014, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 54: 161. 

"Centrolene" fernandoi — Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 55.

"Centrolene" audax — Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 54.

Espadarana audax — Twomey, Delia, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2014, Zootaxa, 3851: 1. 

Espadarana fernandoi — Twomey, Delia, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2014, Zootaxa, 3851: 1. 

Audaciella audax — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 174.

Audaciella fernandoi — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 174.

English Names

Napo Giant Glass Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 46).

Fernando's Giant Glass Frog (Espadarana fernandoi [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 46).

Daring Glassfrog (Guayasamin, Cisneros-Heredia, McDiarmid, Peña, and Hutter, 2020, Diversity, 12 (222): 95). 

Distribution

Low montane evergreen forest on the Amazonian versant of Andes in northern Peru (Departamento San Martín), Ecuador (Napo, Morona Santiago, Sucumbíos, and Zamora Chinchipe provinces), and Colombia (departments of Huila [eastern slope of Cordillera Central], Putumayo, Cauca, Caquetá, and Boyacá [eastern slope of Cordillera Oriental]), 800 to 1900 m elevation. 

Comment

In the Centrolene prosoblepon group according to Ruiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania, 57: 1–30. Mueses-Cisneros, 2005, Caldasia, 27: 231, provided a record for the western Amazonian foothills of the Andes in southern Colombia. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 208 (both as Centrolene audax and Centrolene fernandoi). Guayasamin, Cisneros-Heredia, McDiarmid, Peña, and Hutter, 2020, Diversity, 12 (222): 95–99, provided a detailed account, including adult morphology, advertisement call, relationships, natural history, and conservation status.

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.