Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Euphlyctis > Species: Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis

Rana cyanophlyetis Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 137. Syntypes: "Exempla duo . . . in Museum Blochianum"; ZMB 3197-98, according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 78. Type locality: "India orientali"; probably from Tranquebar, India, according to Bauer, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 137. Note that Schneider clearly intended to spell the specific name "cyanophlyetis", which he does on page 137, and again on page 144. Nevertheless, the current Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), Art. 33.3.1, preserves the "prevailing usage", which is clearly "cyanophlyctis".

Bufo cyanophlyctis —Latreille In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 132; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 176. Incorrect subsequent spelling but now prevailing usage.

Rana cyanophlyetisShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 111.

Bufo cyanoplyetisDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 103. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo cyanophlyetisDaudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 209.

Rana bengalensis Gray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 3: pl. 82, fig. 2. Holotype: Frog illustrated in original figure, deposition unknown, although possibly in possession of Thomas Hardwicke at one time and possibly transferred to BMNH but location now unknown and presumed lost. Type locality: "Bengal", India or Bangladesh. Tentive synonymy with Rana leschenaultii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, by Cantor, 1847, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 16: 1060. Synonymy by Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 406; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 20.

Rana leschenaultii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 342. Syntypes: MNHNP; MNHNP 4366–70 considered syntypes by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 37. Type localities: "Pondichéry", India, and "Bengale", India or Bangladesh. Synonymy by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 78; Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 406; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 20.

Rana benghalensisKelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 192. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Dicroglossus adolfi Günther, 1860, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860: 158. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.1365 (now reregistered 1947.2.28.46), 1860.3.19.1367 (now reregistered 1947.2.28.47), and 1860.11.6.5 (now reregistered 1947.2.4.60–61) according to museum records. Type locality: "Kulu and Simla, Himalaya (2400–4200 feet above the level of the sea", India. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 17.

Euphlyctis leschenaultiiFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414.

Rana cyanophlictisMason, 1882, Burma, Ed. 3: 290. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana cyanophlyctis var. seistanica Nikolskii, 1900 "1899", Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 4: 406. Syntypes: ZISP 2503 (3 specimens), according to Ananjeva, Milto, Barabanov, and Golynsky, 2020, Zootaxa, 4722: 110. Type locality: Neizar in Seistano, Iran [translated from Russian]; probably between Zabol and Varmal, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran, approx. 30.89 N 61.41 E, according to  Ananjeva, Milto, Barabanov, and Golynsky, 2020, Zootaxa, 4722: 110.

Rana (Rana) cyanophlyctisBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 6.

Dicroglossus cyanophlyctisDeckert, 1938, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1938: 138.

Rana cyanophlyctis cyanophlyctisParker, 1941, Exped. SW Arabia 1937–1938, 1, 1: 5, by implication.

Rana (Rana) cyanophlictisGuibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 37. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana cyanophlictis variety fulvusDe Silva, 1958, Spolia Zeylan., 28: 158. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "from brackish water pools on the islands of Karitivu, Leyden and Punkudutivu off Jaffna (N.P)", Sri Lanka.

Rana cyanophlictis variety flavensDe Silva, 1958, Spolia Zeylan., 28: 158. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Ratnapura, Ceylon", Sri Lanka.

Rana (Dicroglossus) cyanophlyctis cyanophlytisDubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 376.

Rana (Euphlyctis) cyanophlyctisDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 240.

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctisPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by implication.

Occidozyga (Euphlyctis) cyanophlyctisDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59.

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctisDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315.

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis cyanophlyctisKhan, 1997, Pakistan J. Zool., 29: 108.

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis microspinulata Khan, 1997, Pakistan J. Zool., 29: 108. Holotype: BMNH 1990.8, by original designation. Type locality: "side pool of a stream on the southwest of Khuzdar (southeast Kalat Division, Balochistan, Pakistan; lat. 27° 53′ N, long. 66° 36′ E)".

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis seistanicaDutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 115.

Euphlyctis mudigere Joshy, Alam, Kurabayashi, Sumida, and Kuramoto, 2009, Alytes, 26: 105. Holotype: BNHS 5127, by original designation. Type locality: "Mudigere", Chikmagalur District, Karnataka, India. Synonymy by Dinesh, Channakeshavamurthy, Deepak, Ghosh, and Deuti, 2021, Zootaxa, 4990: 329. 

English Names

Studded Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 111).

Small Spotted Frog (Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 192).

Skittering Frog (Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 56; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 79; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 179; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 13).

Skettering Frog (Khan, 1979, Biologia, Lahore, 25: 43).

Skipping Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 122).

Skipper Frog (de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 67).

Cyan Five-fingered Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Indian Skipping Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 179; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 35).

Indian Skipper Frog (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 26).

Skipper Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 98; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 179).

Seistan Skittering Frog (Euphlyctis cyanophyctis seistanica: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 160).

Spiny Skittering Frog (Euphlyctis cyanophyctis microspinulata: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 160).

Water Skipping Frog (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 80).

Water Skipper (Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 179).

Green Stream Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 107).

Green Wart Frog (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 20).


Southeastern Iran (Hormozgan, Sistan Va Baluchestan, Kerman provinces [see comment regarding concerns]), southern Afghanistan, Pakistan (except for the far north), low elevation Nepal, southern Bhutan and India at low to moderate elevations south to Kerala and east through Bangladesh and northeastern India to western Myanmar (Chin, Magway, Mandalay, Rakhine, Sagaing) to the Ayeyarwady River; Sri Lanka; Malaya; dubiously from Thailand and Minh Hai Province, Vietnam (see comment).


The mutual range limits of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis and Euphlyctis kalasgramensis require confirmation. See accounts by Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 12; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 237–239, Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 29–32, and Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 112–116. See also Murthy, 1968, J. Univ. Poona, 34: 63–71. See comment under Euphlyctis ehrenbergi. Nominal subspecies are remarkably distinctive (DRF). Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 10, reported this species from the Western Ghats of southwestern India. Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 278, noted the presence of this species in Assam, India. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 98–103, provided a brief account (as Rana cyanophlyctis). See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 89. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 33–35, provided an account. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 86, provided the Vietnam record. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 221–228, provided an account for the Nepal population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 80–81, although presence in that country is rejected by recent authors. Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 365–378, considered the species part of the fauna of Thailand, but indicated that it might be introduced. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 83–84, provided a brief account for West Bengal, India. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 56–58, provided an account for Pakistan. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 107, provided a brief characterization and photograph (which Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 101, regarded as not identifiable beyond the level of Limnonectes). Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 160–165, provided an account (as Rana cyanophlyctis) for Iran. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 114–116, provided distribution, systematic comments, and partial bibliography. Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117–1125, provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India. Chakravorty, Borah, and Bordoloi, 2002, Bull. Life Sci., India, 10: 47–54, described larval morphology at Gosner stage 38 from a population in Assam, India. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 179–182, provided an account for peninsular India. Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 297–298, provided a brief report for Arunachal Pradesh. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317–324, provided a record (as Occidozyga cyanophlyctis) for Manipur, northeastern India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, cited several larval descriptions of varying levels of completeness in the literature. Alam, Igawa, Khan, Islam, Kuramoto, Matsui, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 515–527, suggested on the basis of molecular data that more than one species is masquerading under this name, with the name Rana bengalensis likely being available for the Bangladeshi population, although this was rejected by Howlader, Nair, Gopalan, and Merilä, 2015, PLoS One, 10(2: e0116666): 1–13, who named the Bengal population as Euphlyctis kalasgramensis. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 35, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Wogan, Vindum, Wilkinson, Koo, Slowinski, Win, Thin, Kyi, Oo, Lwin, and Shein, 2008, Hamadryad, 33: 86, discussed the dubiousness of previous records for Myanmar but provided a record for Rakhine state, Myanmar, close to the Bangladesh border. Kuramoto and Joshy, 2008, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 105: 14–18, described the advertisement call from a population in Karnataka, India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 26–27, provided a bried characterization and photographs. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80–94, reported the species from Chittagong and Dhaka divisions, Bangladesh. de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 67, provided a brief account and color photograph for Sri Lanka. Bopage, Wewelwala, Krvavac, Jovanovic, Safarek, and Pushpamal, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 173–177, reported the species in lowland forest in the Kanneliya Forest of southwestern Sri Lanka. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 52, for brief account for Nepal. Hasan, Islam, Khan, Alam, Kurabayashi, Igawa, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2012, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 29: 162–172, discussed the possibility of cryptic species, recognized on the basis of molecular evidence. Wangyal, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4776, provided a record from Bhutan. Masroor, 2012, Contr. Herpetol. N. Pakistan: 55–58, provided an account for northern Pakistan. Khajeh, Mohammadi, Ghorbani, Meshkani, Rastegar-Pouyani, and Torkamanzehi, 2014, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 9: 159–166, reported on mtDNA differentiation across the range and documented candidate lineages and suggested that populations in South India and Sri Lanka should be referred to Eyphlyctis mudigere. Records for Bangladesh have been reassigned to Euphlyctis kalasgramensis by Howlader, Nair, Gopalan, and Merilä, 2015, PLoS One, 10(2: e0116666): 1–13, although the limits of that taxon, which clearly must extend into India, have not been documented. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 42–43, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran.  Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 12, considered the presence of this species in Sikkim, India, to be doubtful. See localities and range map for Afghanistan by Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms, and Böhme, 2016, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 63: 457–565. Roy, Begum, and Ahmed, 2019, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: 12943–12944, discussed the range in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India, and provided localities. O'Connell, Aryal, Sherchan, Dhakal, Chaudhary, and Karmacharya, 2019, J. Nat. Hist., London, 53: 1421–1437, reported on the Kathmandu Valley population, Nepal (presumably based on Euphlyctis kalasgramensis; see below). Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 127–128, provided a  brief account for the population of Odhisa and Andhra Pradesh, India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. Gorule, Gosavi, Kharat, and Verma, 2020, J. Threatened Taxa, 12: 16136–16142, described the osteology for a population in the Western Ghats of South India. Prasad, Gautam, Gupta, Murthy, Ramesh, Shinde, and Das, 2020, Zootaxa, 4851: 450–476, reported on morphology and advertisement call for a population in the Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, central India. Gautam, Chalise, Thapa, and Bhattarai, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 18–28, briefly discussed abundance and elevational range in the Ghandruk region of central Nepal (presumably based on Euphlyctis kalasgramensis; see below). See comments by Hakim, Trageser, Ghose, Das, Rashid, and Rahman, 2020, Check List, 16: 1239–1268, who reported the species from Lawachara National Park, Sylhet Division, northeastern Bangladesh. Key to the species, synonymy, distribution (including map), and access to literature provided by Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 1–331. Khatiwada, Wang, Zhao, Xie, and Jiang, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 1–35, did not accept this species as part of the Nepal fauna and implied that these records apply to Euphlyctus kalasgramensis. Gayen, Dey, and Roy, 2021, Zoos' Print J., 36: 33–39, reported a record from Durgapur Subdivision, West Bengal, India. The mtDNA tree provided by Akram, Rais, López-Hervas, Tarvin, Saeed, Bolnick, and Cannatella, 2021, Ecol. Evol., 11: 14186, suggests that at least some of the Iran records of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis may apply to Euphlyctis kalasgramensisRais, Ahmed, Sajjad, Akram, Saeed, Hamid, and Abid, 2021, ZooKeys, 1062: 157–175, included this species in an identification key to the amphibian species of Pakistan as well as providing a photograph. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 16–17, discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. 

Euphlyctis mudigere was thought to be the sister taxon of Euphlyctis hexadactylus according to the original publication, where morphometrics, description of the morphology, molecular markers, and the advertisement call were covered. Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 43, provided a very brief characterization, photograph, and dot map of nominal Euphlyctis mudigereKhajeh, Mohammadi, Ghorbani, Meshkani, Rastegar-Pouyani, and Torkamanzehi, 2014, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 9: 159–166, suggested that South India and Sri Lankan populations of nominal Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis actually refer to Euphlyctis mudigere, although that species was subsequently placed into the synonymy of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis by Dinesh, Channakeshavamurthy, Deepak, Ghosh, and Deuti, 2021, Zootaxa, 4990: 329, on the basis of mtDNA similarity. These authors also noted that, on the basis of mtDNA analysis, nominal Euphlyctis seistanica of Iran may require resurrection from synonymy and that several unnamed lineages remain in Sri Lanka, the Gangetic Plain of eastern India, and the western coastal plains of peninsular India. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 21–22, considered records from Vietnam and elsewhere in Indochina are dubious and likely based on misidentifications.  

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