Hoplobatrachus Peters, 1863

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Hoplobatrachus
6 species

Hydrostentor Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414. Type species: Hydrostentor pantherinus Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", nomen nudum. Synonymy with Rana by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 18; with Hoplobatrachus by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 240.

Hoplobatrachus Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 449. Type species: Hoplobatrachus ceylanicus Peters, 1863 (= Rana tigerina Daudin, 1802), by monotypy.

Hydrostentor Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 18. Type species: Hydrostentor tigrina var. pantherina Steindachner, 1867, by monotypy. Synonymy by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 240.

Ranosoma Ahl, 1924, Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A,, 90: 250. Type species: Ranosoma schereri Ahl, 1924, by original designation. Synonymy with Euphlyctis by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 240.

Tigrina Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 144. Type species: Rana tigerina Daudin, 1803, by original designation. Preoccupied by Tigrina Grevé, 1894.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Rana hydraletis Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 79. Nomen nudum, ascribed by Peters to Boie. Considered a synonym of Rana occipitalis (sensu lato) by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 78; Peters, 1877, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877: 618; and also by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 27; and of Rana tigerina (sensu lato) by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 240. Considered incertae sedis within Hoplobatrachus by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 60.

English Names

Peters Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Crowned Bullfrogs (Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 295).

Bull Frogs (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 3). 


Subsaharan Africa south to Angola, extreme northeastern Zambia and Tanzania; Peninsular India, Sri Lanka, Malay, Myanmar, Thailand, and southern China (introduced on Borneo and Madagascar).


The former Rana tigerina group of Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20. Subfamily Raninae, Tribe Dicroglossini according to Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 57. Subfamily Dicroglossinae, tribe Limnonectini, according to Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315. Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 243, noted that because the Limnonectini was paraphyletic with respect to the Ceratobatrachini, Conrauini, and Dicroglossini, that retaining Hoplobatrachus in the Limnonectini, on the basis of plesiomorphy, was problematical, with both Hoplobatrachus and Conrauini, distinguished from the Limnonectini solely on the basis of derived larval features. Kosuch, Vences, Dubois, Ohler, and Böhme, 2001, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 21: 398–407, reported on phylogenetics within Hoplobatrachus. Dubois, Ohler, and Biju, 2001, Alytes, 19: 55, discussed the taxonomic placement of this taxon and placed it in the tribe Dicroglossini, without addressing Inger’s concern of paraphyly. Grosjean, Vences, and Dubois, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 171–181, suggested that Hoplobatrachus is the sister taxon of Euphlyctis, although the monophyly of both taxa was assumed. Alam, Igawa, Khan, Islam, Kuramoto, Matsui, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 515–527, provided evidence of Hoplobatrachus monophyly and discussed its biogeography. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, confirmed the monophyly of this taxon and its position as sister taxon of Euphlyctis, although Hasan, Islam, Khan, Alam, Kurabayashi, Igawa, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2012, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 29: 162–172, provided weak molecular evidence for the paraphyly of Hoplobatrachus to EuphlyctisDeuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 131, provided a  brief account for the Eastern Ghats population, India.

Contained taxa (6 sp.):

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