Occidozyga sumatrana (Peters, 1877)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Occidozyga > Species: Occidozyga sumatrana

Microdiscopus sumatranus Peters, 1877, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877: 422. Holotype: ZMB 9123 according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 49. Type locality: "Sumatra", Indonesia.

Occidozyga sumatranaIskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 79.

Phrynoglossus sumatranaFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30. Gender disagreement. See comment under Dicroglossidae.

Occidozyga sumaterana — Amin, 2020, Frogs of East Java: 80. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Phrynoglossus sumatranus — Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 7.

English Names

Puddle Frog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 19 [as Occidozyga laevis]).

Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 19 [as Occidozyga laevis]).

Sumatran Puddle Frog (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 79).

Orange-headed Flood Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 97 [as Phrynoglossus laevis]).

Smooth-backed Puddle Frog (McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 35 [as Occidozyga laevis]).

Smooth Skin Puddle Frog (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 304).


Distribution provisional: Sumatra, Bali, Java, Singapore, and West Malaysia; records outside of this region require genetic confirmation.  

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Singapore


Records from outside of the stated area are presumed to be based on misidentifications; this taxon requires dense genetic sampling to insure identifications so the reader should assume that comments that follow are based on previous (before 2021) understandings of range. Resurrected from the synonymy of Occidozyga laevis by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 79 (although restricted by him to Sumatra), where it had been placed by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 6. The distribution is provisional because of long-standing confusion with Occidozyga laevis. See brief account (as Phrynoglossus laevis) and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 102. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 97, provided a brief characterization (as Phrynoglossus laevis) and photograph, which Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 101, did not think was identifiable beyond genus. Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 240–243; and Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 401–404, provided accounts of this species as Occidozyga laevis. See also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 59–60. See comment under Occidozyga laevis. Reported (as Occidozyga laevis) from Hainan I., China, by Song, Jang, Zou, and Shi, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 69–79. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 157–158, provided an account (as Occidozyga laevis). Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 23, provided specific localities for Vietnam (as Occidozyga laevis). Reported for Pulau Langkawi, Kadeh, northwestern West Malaysia, by Grismer, Youmans, Wood, Ponce, Wright, Jones, Johnson, Sanders, Gower, Yaakob, and Lim, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 61–74 (presumably based on Occidozyga sumatrana). McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 35–36, provided a brief account and photograph (as Occidozyga laevis). Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 58, provided a photograph and brief account, as Occidozyga laevisDas, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 152, provided a brief description (as Occidozyga laevis). Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 136, detailed the range in peninsular Thailand (as Occidozyga laevis). Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 222, provided a brief account for Thailand (as Occidozyga laevis). Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 304–305, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). See brief account for East Java by Amin, 2020, Frogs of East Java: 79–82. Chan, Schoppe, Rico, and Brown, 2020, Philipp. J. Syst. Biol., 14: 1–14, reported on molecular phylogeography, noting a 8–9% sequence divergence between peninsular Malaysian populations and those on Java, suggesting strongly that nominal Occidozyga sumatrana is a species complex. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 28, suggested that (presumably due to the widespread confusion in the literature between Occidozyga laevis and Occidozyga sumatrana detailed by Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 1–26) that the taxonomic status of populations in Vietnam and Laos needs confirmation. Flury, Haas, Brown, Das, Min, Kueh, Scheidt, Iskandar, Jankowski, and Hertwig, 2021, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 163 (107210): 1–17, detected from within their dataset in the sumatrana group 6 lineages, not forming monophyletic groups within Sumatra and Borneo, sampling from among populations on the Thai-Malay peninsula did not detect any member. Gillespie, Ahmad, and Shia, 2021, Field Guide Frog Lower Kinabatangan Region Sabah: 21, provided a brief account, summarizing identification and life history in the Lower Kinabatangan Region, Sabah, Malaysia. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 26, excluded Occidozyga sumatrana from anywhere outside of the southern Malay Peninsula and Greater Sundas. Badriah, Wahyuni, Usman, Mahrawi, Ratnasari, and Rifqiawati, 2022, Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, 13 (3): 1–8, reported specimens from Ujong Kulon National Park, extreme western Java, Indonesia. Figueroa, Low, and Lim, 2023, Zootaxa, 5287: 1–378, provided records, literature, and conservation status for Singapore.   

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.