Rhacophorus kio Ohler and Delorme, 2006

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Rhacophorus > Species: Rhacophorus kio

Rhacophorus kio Ohler and Delorme, 2006, C. R. Biol., Paris, 329: 90. Holotype: MNHNP 2004.0411, by original designation. Type locality: "Long Nai, Nam Lan Forest Conservation Area, Buon Tai County, Phongsaly Province, Laos".

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) kio — Mahony, Kamei, Brown, and Chan, 2024, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 74: 253, by implication. 

English Names

Black-webbed Treefrog (Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 461).

Asian Black-webbed Treefrog (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 65). 

Phongsaly Tree Frog (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 432).

Kio Flying Frog (Nguyen, Brakels, Maury, Sudavanh, Pawangkhanant, Idiiatullina, Lorphengsy, Inkhavilay, Suwannapoom, and Poyarkov, 2020, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 14 (2: e248): 228).

Black-webbed Whipping Treefrog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 44). 


Southern Yunnan and southern Guangxi, China, as well as eastern Myanmar (see comment; the literature is confusing), northwestern Thailand (Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, and Uthai Thani provinces), Laos (Champasak, Houaphan, Xaignabouli, Khammouan, Phongsali, and Louangphabang provinces), Vietnam (Lao Cai, Cao Bang, Son La, and Ha Tinh province in the north, south to Kon Tum, and Gia Lai provinces); possibly in adjacent Cambodia.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: China, People's Republic of, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam


Confused with Rhacophorus reinwardtii prior to its description so all literature prior to 2006 applying to this species refers to it as Rhacophorus reinwardtii. By implication in the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) reinwardtii group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77; see comment under Rhacophorus for dissenting opinion regarding the recognition of this group. For accounts (as Rhacophorus reinwardtii) see Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 255–257; Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 218–220; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 335; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 268–269; Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 133–134; see also Orlov, Lathrop, Murphy, and Ho, 2001, Russ. J. Herpetol., 8: 38–39, who noted that previous records of Rhacophorus nigropalmatus from Vietnam likely applied to this species. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 97, noted that the elevation range in Vietnam is 200–1800 m. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 93, provided a brief account, as Rhacophorus reinwardtii, for West Bengal, India, although this is far outside of the known distribution and was not included in the list of Indian amphibians by Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 1–153. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 162–163, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 40, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Bain, Nguyen, and Doan, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 111, provided records for Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam, treated the previous records of Rhacophorus reinwardtii from Laos as this species, and briefly discussed the range. Orlov, Nguyen, and Ho, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 67–84, provided a photograph and a key to differentiate this species from others in Vietnam. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 774–777, provided an account and a spot map for China and assigned this species to their Rhacophorus verrucopus group. Chan and Grismer, 2010, Zootaxa, 2505: 40–50, provided a history of the taxonomy of this species as well as comparative characteristics with close relatives. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 461, provided a brief account for China including photographs of specimens. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 140, detailed the range in Thailand. Li, Li, Murphy, Rao, and Zhang, 2012, Zool. Scripta, 41: xxx, provided evidence that all specimens of nominal Rhacophorus reinwardtii from China are referable to Rhacophorus kio. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 116–117, provided a brief account (as Rhacophorus reinwardtii) for Yunnan, China. Rowley, Tran, Hoang, and Le, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 480–487, provided some comparative molecular data with Rhacophorus helenaeFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 545, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. A record for Thuong Tien Nature Reserve, Hoa Binh Province, in northern Vietnam, reported by Luu, Le, Do, Hoang, Nguyen, Bonkowski, and Ziegler, 2014, Herpetol. Notes, 7: 51–58. Teynié, Nguyen, Lorvelec, Piquet, Lottier, and David, 2014, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 151: 31, provided a record from Vientiene Province, Laos, and discussed the range. Pham, Pham, Hoang, Ziegler, and Nguyen, Herpetol. Notes, 10: 183–191, provided records from Ha Giang Province, Vietnam, as well as morphological and ecological observation. Pham, An, Herbst, Bonkowski, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Bonn Zool. Bull., 66: 37–53, provided records for Cao Bang Province, Vietnam, along with observations on morphology and natural history. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 432–433, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Reported from Lai Chau Province, Vietnam, by Pham, Hoang, Pham, and Nguyen, 2019, VNU J. Sci. Nat. Sci. Tech., 35: 73–79. Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 65, provided a brief account and gave the species' range in Myanmar as the northeastern part, apparently in error. Nguyen, Brakels, Maury, Sudavanh, Pawangkhanant, Idiiatullina, Lorphengsy, Inkhavilay, Suwannapoom, and Poyarkov, 2020, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 14 (2: e248): 218–249, briefly discussed the natural history and range and provided records for Vientiane and Xiasomboun Provinces, Laos. Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 168–169, provided photographs, a brief account for Thailand, and a range map. Le, Luong, Pham, Phan, Nguyen, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2021, Bonn Zool. Bull., 70: 201–219, provided descriptive and natural history notes and a record from Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 44, briefly discussed habitat, range (restricted to peninsular Myanmar in this account), and identification in Myanmar. Ziegler, Ong, Hoang, Pham, and Nguyen, 2022, Acad. J. Biol., 44: 114, referred their earlier record of Rhacophorus reinwardtii (Ziegler, 2002, Amph. Rept. Tieflandfeuchtwald–Schutzgebietes Vietnam: 1–342) from Ke Go Nature Reserve, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, to Rhacophorus kioPham, Nguyen, Tran, Le, Nguyen, Nguyen, Pham, Dang, and Doan, 2023, VNU J. Sci. Earth Environ. Sci., 39: 53–61, provided a record for Son La Province, Vietnam.    

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