Pelophryne Barbour, 1938

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Pelophryne
13 species

Pelophryne Barbour, 1938, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 51: 192. Type species: Pelophryne albotaeniata Barbour, 1938, by original designation.

English Names

Flathead Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 45).

Dwarf Toads (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 43).


Philippines; Borneo; Malaya and adjacent Singapore; Hainan I., China.


Graybeal and Cannatella, 1995, Herpetologica, 51: 122, noted that there is no unambiguous evidence in support of the monophyly of this taxon. See comment under Parapelophryne. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 129, on the basis of molecular evidence considered Pelophryne to be distantly related to other Asian bufonids, and most closely related to South American Rhinella and Ramphophryne. Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 78-90, reviewed the Bornean species and Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 233-239, reviewed the Philippine forms. See Inger, 1960, Fieldiana, Zool., 39: 415-418, for revisory notes. Smith and Chiszar, 2006, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 1: 6-8, implied that this taxon should be considered a subgenus of Bufo; see comment under Bufonidae. Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1-10, and Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679-682, on the basis of molecular evidence suggested that Pelophryne is the sister taxon of Ansonia. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, confirmed this relationship and provided a tree of their exemplar species. Matsui, 2019, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 38: 128–139, detailed the taxonomic confusion surrounding Pelophryne brevipes and Pelophryne signata, noted candidate species, and named Pelophryne ingeri. 

Contained taxa (13 sp.):

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