Limnonectes limborgi (Sclater, 1892)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Limnonectes > Species: Limnonectes limborgi

Rana limborgi Sclater, 1892, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892: 344. Holotype: ZSIC by original designation; ZSIC 5400 according to Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 4; lost according to Inger and Stuart, 2010, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 29: 57, who designated as neotype MSNG 29422. Type locality: "Tenasserim", Myanmar; given as "Meetan, Tenasserim" by XXX; neotype from "Karin Bia-po, Myanmar (19° 03´N/ 96° 30´ E)"; this regarded as erroneous by Köhler, Zwitzers, Than, Gupta, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Diversity, 13 (399): 2, who identified the neotype locality as currently named "Leiktho [Kayin State, Myanmar] and is located at 865–885 m above sea level."

Rana (Rana) limborgiiBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 7. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Platymantis liui Yang, 1983, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 2 (2): 53, 56. Holotype: KIZ 195, by original designation. Type locality: "Menglun, Mengla County, Yunnan, alt. 550 m", China. Synonmy by Huang, Li, Liu, Stuart, Yuan, and Zhao, 2022, Zootaxa, 5092: 116.

Micrixalus liui — E. Zhao In Brown, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 468; Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 170; Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 136.

Limnonectes (Taylorana) limborgiDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 63–64.

Platymantis liui — Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 293.

Ingerana (Liurana) liui — Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 65.

Taylorana limborgiDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 314; Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30. See comment under Dicroglossidae.

Liurana liui — Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 222–224.

Taylorana liui — Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 391. See comment under Dicroglossidae.

Limnonectes (Taylorana) liui — Borah, Bordoloi, Purkayastha, Das, Dubois, and Ohler, 2013, Herpetozoa, Wien, 26: 45. 

English Names

Taylor's Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 110).

Limborg's Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 142).

Limborg's Forest Frog (Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 92). 

Limborg's Fanged Frog (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 37). 

Menglun Eastern Frog (Limnonectes liui [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Liu's Papillae-tongued Frog (Limnonectes liui [no longer recognized]: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 216).

Liu's Taylor Frog (Limnonectes liui [no longer recognized]: Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 391).

Limborg's Broad-headed Frog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 22).

Liu's Broad-headed Frog (Limnonectes liui [no longer recognized]: Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 21).


Northwestern Thailand and southeastern (non-peninsular) Myanmar; records from outside of this area may apply to unnamed species (see comment): northern Myanmar south and east through peninsular Myanmar, northern Thailand with isolated records in southern peninsular Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam (Lao Cai and Quang Ninh provinces south to Dong Nai and Kien Giang provinces) and northeastern Cambodia; adjacent Yunnan (Mengla, Jinghong, and Cangyuan counties) .

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Cambodia, China, People's Republic of, Laos, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam


Removed from the synonymy of Limnonectes hascheanus by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 64, where it had been placed by Smith, 1929, Rec. Indian Mus., 31: 77. See Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 274, for literature access. Stuart, 1999, in Duckworth et al. (eds.), Wildlife in Lao PDR: 45, reported the species in Laos. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 142–143, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Inger and Stuart, 2010, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 29: 51–68, reported on the systematics of this species (which they suggested may be composed of several species) and the closely related Limnonectes limborgi and redelimited the ranges of both, thereby rendering doubtful identifications in a considerable amount of previous literature. Bain, Nguyen, and Doan, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 109, provided records from Thua Thien-Hue, Nghe An, and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam (as Limnonectes hascheanus). Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 32, provided specific localities for Vietnam (as Limnonectes hascheanus). Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 136, detailed the range in Thailand. See account, photograph, and map for Vietnam in Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 92–93. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 95, provided a genetically confirmed record from Taninthary Department, southern Myanmar. Pham, Phan, Do, and Nguyen, 2019, Tap-Chi-Sinh-Hoc, 41 (2se1&2se2): 172–173, reported collection sites in Kon Tum and Quang Ninh provinces, Vietnam, and described the specimens (noting differences from Limnonectes haschenaus), provided ecological notes, and summarized the range in Vietnam by province. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 268–269, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 37–38, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Pham, Do, Ngo, Tran, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2020, Check List, 16: 1025–1041, provided a record from Hai Ha District, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam, on the Guangxi, China, border. Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 62, provided photographs, a brief account for Thailand, and a range map. Le, Luong, Pham, Phan, Nguyen, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2021, Bonn Zool. Bull., 70: 201–219, provided natural history notes and a record from Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 24, repeated Inger and Stuart's (2010) statement that this is likely a species complex. Köhler, Zwitzers, Than, Gupta, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Diversity, 13 (399): 1–35, recognized 9 16S mtDNA clades within the nominal species, of which they named Clade 6 (Bagoyoma region of southern Myanmar) as Limnonectes bagoyoma and the applied the name Limnonectes limborgi to their Clade 7 from northwestern Thailand and southeastern (non-peninsular) Myanmar; the rest of the range they regarded as likely composed of the remaining 7 16S mtDNA lineages. Pretty clearly nuDNA, advertisement call, and morphological evidence is required to elucidate this complex. Huang, Li, Liu, Stuart, Yuan, and Zhao, 2022, Zootaxa, 5092: 116–126,  discussed the confusing literature of Limnonectes liui and via comparison of morphology and molecular markers placed it into the synonymy of Limnonectes limborgiZug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 21, briefly discussed identification (as both Limnonectes limborgi and Limnonectes liui), habitat, and range in Myanmar. Zou, Anuar, Low, Hong, Grismer, and Quah, 2024, Zootaxa, 5399: 163–171, reported on advertisement calls from the type locality (Penang Island) and other locations on Peninsular Malaysia (Fraser's Hill and Genting Highlands) of nominal Limnonectes hascheanus, resulting in the tentative assignment of the mainland populations (Fraser's Hill and Genting Highlands) to Limnonectes limborgi.

Literature of former Limnonectes liui: Closely related to Cornufer tenaserrimensis (= Ingerana tenasserimensis of this list), according to the original publication. See Liu and Hu, 1960 "1959", Acta Zool. Sinica, 11: 521–522. Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 170–172; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 222–223, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See also brief account (as Micrixalus liui) by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 101–102. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 90–91, provided a brief account for Yunnan, China. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 481. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 3: 1474–1478, provided an account for China (as Liurana liui), figures, and map, and placed this species in their monotypic Liurana liui group. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 391, provided a brief account (as Taylorana liui). Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 489, provided an account (as Taylorana liui), photographs, and a range map for China. Borah, Bordoloi, Purkayastha, Das, Dubois, and Ohler, 2013, Herpetozoa, Wien, 26: 45, discussed the generic assignment of the species. 

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