Boulenophrys boettgeri (Boulenger, 1899)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Boulenophrys > Species: Boulenophrys boettgeri

Leptobrachium boettgeri Boulenger, 1899, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1899: 171. Syntypes: BMNH (5 specimens); 6 specimens recorded as syntypes by the BMNH 1947.2.25.4 (formerly 1898.9.15.5) and 1899.4.24.87–91 (the discrepancy in number of specimens requires investigation–DRF), MCZ 3790 (on exchange from BMNH according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 292). Type locality: "Kuatun, a village about 270 miles from Foochow, in the mountains at the North-west of the Province of Fokien [= Fujian], at an altitude of 3000 to 4000 feet or more", China.

Megalophrys boettgeriBoulenger, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1908: 420.

Megophrys boettgeriGee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 20; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 438; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 58.

Megophrys (Megophrys) boettgeriDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 472.

Panophrys boettgeriRao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98–99; Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 12. 

Megophrys (Xenophrys) boettgeriDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14.

Xenophrys boettgeriOhler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23, by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17.

Boulenophrys boettgeri — Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 650; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 413, 679 (by implication); Qi, Lyu, Wang, Mo, Zeng, Zeng, Dai, Li, Grismer, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 5072: 403, new combination.

Xenophrys (Panophrys) boettgeri — Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 109: 41.

Megophrys (Panophrys) boettgeri — Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. 

English Names

Boettger's Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 54).

Boettger's Pelobatid Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63, based on some other species).

Pale-shouldered Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 116).


Fujian, Fujian, Jiangxi, Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Shanxi, all in eastern China.


See Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 438–444; Chang, 1947, Trans. Chinese Assoc. Adv. Sci., 9: 89; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 59; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 116–117. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 147, provided a brief account and illustration. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 35–37, provided an account for Zhejiang. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 49, provided an account for Guangxi. Fan, Guo, and Liu, 1998, Amph. Rept. Shanxi Prov.: 47–49, provided an account for Shanxi. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted a few larval descriptions, of varying completeness, in the literature. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 416–420, provided an account and spot map for China. Dai, Li, Zheng, Gong, and Liu, 2009, Sichuan J. Zool., 28: 291. provided a record for Hubei, China.Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 184–185, provided a brief account including photographs. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 23, provided an account for Xenophrys kempii for Xizang, China, probably based on a population closely related to Xenophrys boettgeri; the problem is that the type of this nominal species is a "Philautus" (in some general sense) and the population in Xizang appears to lack a name (DRF). Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 212–213, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China.  Zhou, Qiu, Fang, Yang, Zhao, Fang, Zheng, and Liu, 2014, Zool. Res., Kunming, 35: 42–50, reported on call characteristics in China. Mahony, Teeling, and Biju, 2013, Zootaxa, 3722: 39–46, and Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 12, and Chettri, 2017, Das (ed.), Diversity Ecol. Amph. India: 97,  considered the presence of this species in Sikkim, India, to be doubtful due to confusion with Megophrys kempiiWang, Zhao, Yang, Zhou, Chen, and Liu, 2014, PLoS One, 9(4)(e93075): 1–15, discussed the advertisement call. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 650–652, provided an account, photographs, and dot map. as Boulenophrys boettgeriLi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Guangdong: 27, provided a brief account for Guangdong, China, and photograph. Records from Xianju County, Zhejiang Province, China, presumably all apply to Megophrys xianjuensis, according to Wang, Wu, Peng, Shi, Lu, and Wu, 2020, ZooKeys, 904: 54–55. 

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