Boulenophrys minor (Stejneger, 1926)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Boulenophrys > Species: Boulenophrys minor

Megophrys minor Stejneger, 1926, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 39: 53. Holotype: USNM 68816, by original designation. Type locality: "On mountain, about 3000 feet altitude, above Kwanghsien [now Guan Xian, now Dujiangyan City], 55 kilometers northwest of Chengtu [= Chengdu], Szechwan [=Sichuan], China".

Megophrys (Megophrys) minorDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 472.

Megophrys minor minorYe and Fei, 1995, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 4–5: 75-76.

Panophrys minorRao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98; Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 12. 

Megophrys (Xenophrys) minorDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14.

Megophrys minor minorFei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 118.

Xenophrys minorOhler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23, by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17; Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 41.

Boulenophrys minor — Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 660; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 413; Qi, Lyu, Wang, Mo, Zeng, Zeng, Dai, Li, Grismer, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 5072: 404.

Xenophrys (Panophrys) minor — Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 109: 41.

Megophrys (Panophrys) minor — Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. 

English Names

Kwangshien Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86).

Little Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 118).

Dwarf Horned Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 84).

Tiny Spadefoot Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 14).

Lesser Horned Toad (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 37). 


Guizhou, eastern Xizang, Sichuan, northern and northeastern Yunnan, extreme western Hunan, and extreme northwestern Guangxi and northern Guangdong, China; northwestern Vietnam (Lao Cai Province); presumably into adjacent eastern Myanmar and extreme northern Laos; one questionable record in eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India, and another in Bhutan (see comment).


See Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 68, and Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 185–191. See comments under Megophrys wuliangshanensis and Megophrys wushanensis. See account s by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 42–46; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 170. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 118–119, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 148–149, provided a brief account and illustration. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 45, provided an account for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 83, provided the Vietnam component of the range statement. Jiang, Xie, Fei, Ye, and Zheng, 2002, Zool. Res., Kunming, 23: 89–94, reported on vocalization. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 45–46. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 14, provided a specific locality for Vietnam. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 30–31, provided a brief account for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 438–443, provided an account for China and spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 199, provided a brief account including photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 227, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. Wangyal, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4777, provided a record from Mongar District, southeast-central Bhutan although this identification requires confirmation. Mahony, Teeling, and Biju, 2013, Zootaxa, 3722: 151, commented on the one record for India, noting that it is based on one old, dehydrated specimen but clearly not Megophrus angka; they tentatively accepted the identification as Megophrys minor, but suggested that confirmation on the ground is required. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 660–652, provided an account, photographs, and dot map as Boulenophrys minorLi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Guangdong: 29, provided a brief account for Guangdong, China, and photograph. Wang, Zhao, Yang, Zhou, Chen, and Liu, 2014, PLoS One, 9(4)(e93075): 1–15, discussed the advertisement call. Zhang, 2017, Amph. Rept. Fanjing Mts.: 82–84, provided taxonomic and natural history information for the Fanjing Mountains population in northeastern Guizhou, China. Deuti, Grosjean, Nicolas, Vasudevan, and Ohler, 2017, Alytes, 34: 20–48, provided comparative morphological data and a molecular tree that places this species phylogeneticall. Thailand records now referred to Megophrys angka. Wu, Suwannapoom, Poyarkov, Chen, Pawangkhanant, Xu, Jin, Murphy, and Che, 2019, Zool. Res., Kunming, 40: 564–574, discussed comparative characteristics within the Panophrys minor complex. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 37, commented on the single Vietnam record. 

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