Kaloula borealis (Barbour, 1908)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Kaloula > Species: Kaloula borealis

Cacopoides borealis Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 51: 321. Holotype: MCZ 2436, by original designation. Type locality: "Antung [= Dandong Shi, Liaoning Province], Manchuria", China.

Callula tornieri Vogt, 1913, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1913: 219. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: "Korea". Synonymy suggested by Schmidt, 1927, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 54; made by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 82.

Kaloula borealisNoble, 1925, Am. Mus. Novit., 165: 1-17.

Kaloula wolterstorffi Stejneger, 1925, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 15: 151. Holotype: UMMZ 60310, by original designation and according to Peters, 1952, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 539: 18. Type locality: "Nanking [= Nanjing Shi], province of Kiangsu [= Jiangsu], China". Synonymy suggested by Schmidt, 1927, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 54; made by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 82.

Cacopoides tornieriMori, 1927, Handlist Manchurian E. Mongol. Vert.: 146; Okada, 1927, Copeia, 158: 171; Okada, 1928, Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. J., 6: 25.

Kaloula tornieriGee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 26.

Kaloula wolterstorffiShaw, 1929, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., 1: 97. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Kaloula manchuriensis Boring and Liu, 1932, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 6: 21. Holotype: Boring Coll.; now either destroyed or in not recognized as such and in FMNH. Type locality: "under a stone at the Eastern Tomb outside of Mukden [= Shenyang Shi]", Liaoning Province, China. Synonymy by Boring, 1936, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 10: 346.

English Names

Manchurian Narrowmouth Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Digging Frog(Boring, Liu, and Chou, 1932, Handb. N. China, Amph. Rept.: 36).

Rain Frog (Boring, Liu, and Chou, 1932, Handb. N. China, Amph. Rept.: 36).

Manchurian Digging Frog (Boring, Liu, and Chou, 1932, Handb. N. China, Amph. Rept.: 38).

Boreal Digging Frog (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 300).


Central (northeastern Sichuan and eastern Gansu) and northern and northeastern China south to Shanghai; Korean Peninsula and Cheju I.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: China, People's Republic of, Korea, Democratic People's Republic (North), Korea, Republic of (South)


See accounts by Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 587; and Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 288-289. See Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 161, for comment on the type locality. See accounts by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 348; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 300-301. Lee, Yang, Kim, Lee, Lee, Yang, and Lee, 2000, Korean J. Genet., 22: 133-140, and Yang, Kim, Min, Suh, and Kang, 2000, Korean J. Biol. Sci., 4: 39-44, reported on low genetic variation among Chinese and Korean populations. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 94, provided an account for Zhejiang populations. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 58-59, provided a brief account, figure, and map for South Korea. Fan, Guo, and Liu, 1998, Amph. Rept. Shanxi Prov.: 78-80, provided an account for Shanxi. Das, Sengupta, Ahmed, and Dutta, 2005, Hamadryad, 29: 105, recognized Kaloula manchuriensis as distinct, but the comparison was indirect to Kaloula borealis, so it is not clear why this elevation was effected. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 936-940, provided an account and spot map for China and assigned this species to their Kaloula verrucosa group. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 494, provided a brief account for China including photographs of specimens and habitat. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 582, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. Hwang and Lee, 2012, Mitochondrial DNA, 23: 301–302, reported on the complete mtDNA genome. Yao and Gong, 2012, Amph. Rept. Gansu: 43–44, provided a brief account and photographs. Li, Lian, and Lu, 2010, Res. Tadpoles Liaoning: 32–34, described and pictured the larva. Zhang, Li, Shu, Xiao, Pei, Yuan, Sun, Wang, and Wang, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 240–244, provided records from Shanghai, China. Dot map and discussion of status for North Korea provided by Song, 2016, J. Natl. Park Res., Rep. Korea, 7: 211–217. Zhang, Chen, Ye, Fei, Li, Jiang, and Wang, 2020, Acta Zool., Stockholm, 101: 366–383, reported on osteology. Borzée, Litvinchuk, Ri, Andersen, Nam, Jon, Man, Choe, Kwon, Othman, Messenger, Bae, Shin, Kim, Maslova, Luedtke, Hobin, Moores, Seliger, Glenk, and Jang, 2021, Animals, 11 (2057): 1–37, provided locality records, a distribution map as well as modeled distribution, life history comments, and conservation status for P.D.R. Korea. Andersen, Chuang, Choe, Kim, Kwon, Jang, and Borzée, 2022, Zool. Stud., Taipei, 61(25): 1–10, reported on the elevational range (0–566 m) in Rep. Korea.  

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