Microhyla heymonsi Vogt, 1911

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Microhyla > Species: Microhyla heymonsi

Microhyla heymonsi Vogt, 1911, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1911: 181. Syntypes: ZMB 21944 (9 specimens), according to Bauer, Günther, and Robeck, 1996, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 72: 266. Type locality: "Formosa" (= Taiwan), China; restricted to "Kosempo, Formosa" [= Taiwan, China], by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 135.

Microhyla (Microhyla) heymonsiDubois, 1987, Alytes, 6: 3.

Microhyletta heymonsiLue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 58, incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Taiwan Rice Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Heymon's Ricefrog (Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 58).

Dark-sided Chorus Frog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 43; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 104).

Arcuate-spotted Pygmy Frog (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 292).

Heymon's Narrow-mouthed Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 54).

Heymon's Narrow-mouthed Toad (Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 58; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 66).

Burrowing Microhylid Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 40).

Black-sided Narrow-mouthed Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 177).

Black-flanked Pigmy Frog (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 39).

Dark-sided Narrow-mouthed Frog (Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 66).

Heymon's Narrow-mouthed Frog (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 41). 

Black-sided Narrow-mouthed Frog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 31).  


Provisional: restricted to Taiwan (see comment) and mainland southern China from Zhejiang to Yunnan, including Hainan; other populations are of other named and unnamed species: from Taiwan, mainland Myanmar (Bago, Kachin, Kayah, Shan, Yangon) and southern peninsular Myanmar (Mon, Tanintharyi); southward through to peninsular Thailand.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: China, People's Republic of, Taiwan

Likely/Controversially Present: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam


Subgenus Microhyla, Microhyla achatina group. Care should be used in employing the literature of this nominal species inasmuch as the range of the species is poorly understood and likely confused with other named and unnamed species according to Garg, Sivaperuman, Gokulakrishnan, Chandramouli, and Biju, 2022, Zool. Stud., Taipei, 61 (2): 1–23, who addressed the systematics of the species and its near relatives. Hoang, Nguyen, Phan, Pham, Ninh, Wang, Jiang, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 841: 1–18, mapped the species of the Microhyla heymonsi group as understood in 2022, and discussed their phylogenetics and taxonomy, including providing evidence that the taxon continues to represent a complex, with one species in Taiwan (the noninate form) and a closely related lineage on the mainland.  Ziegler, Ong, Hoang, Pham, and Nguyen, 2022, Acad. J. Biol., 44: 114, referred their earlier record of Microhyla heymonsi (Ziegler, 2002, Amph. Rept. Tieflandfeuchtwald–Schutzgebietes Vietnam: 1–342) from Ke Go Nature Reserve, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, to Microhyla sp.

For accounts under the name Microhyla heymonsi see Chan, 1977, Q. J. Taiwan Mus., 30: 323-327; Chang, 1947, Trans. Chinese Assoc. Adv. Sci., 9: 97; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 519-521; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 593; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 554-557; and Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 121-122. Heyer, 1971, Fieldiana, Zool., 58: 61–82, reported on the call from Thailand, although given this provisional state of Microhyla heymonsi complex systematics. See accounts by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 239-241; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 342; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 292-294. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 43, provided a brief account. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 221, provided a brief account and illustration. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 62-63. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 90-92, provided an account for Zhejiang populations. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 144, provided an account for Guangxi. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 138-139. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465-481. Stuart, 1999, in Duckworth et al. (eds.), Wildlife in Lao PDR: 49, commented on the range in Laos. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 104-105, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Grosselt, Sengupta, Gupta, Vauche, and Gupta, 2005, Hamadryad, 29: 131, reported the species from Silchar, Assam, India. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 45, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 476, provided specific localities for Laos. Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 58-59, provided a brief account for Taiwan. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted several larval descriptions in the literature of varying completeness. Luo, Gao, Gao, Xiao, Zhu, Wen, and Jiang, 2008, Sichuan J. Zool., 27: 425, discussed the range in Chongqing, China. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 125, provided a brief account for Yunnan, China. Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 66, provided a photograph, brief account of identification, ecology, and range in Cambodia. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 66-67, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Teynié, David, and Ohler, 2010, Zootaxa, 2416: 8, reported on a specimen from Sumatra and commented on the range. Sheridan, Bickford, and Su, 2010, Raffles Bull. Zool., 58: 369-379, reported on call similarity and genetic differences between populations in Singapore and Thailand. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 482-483, provided a brief account for China including photographs of specimens. Thong-aree, Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 99–106, reported the species from Bala Forest, Narathiwat, extreme southern Thailand. Shi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Fauna Hainan: 55-57, provided an account for Hainan. Aran, Chuaynkern, Duangjai, and Chuaynkern, 2012, J. Wildlife Thailand, 19: 41–73, described larval morphology including the oral apparatus. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 568-569, provided an account, photographs, and a range map. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Hasan, Islam, Khan, Igawa, Alam, Tjong, Kurniawan, Joshy, Yong, Belabut, Kurabayashi, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2014, Turkish J. Zool., 38: 389, suggested on the basis of 16S mtDNA divergence that the population peninsular Malaysia may be an unnamed cryptic species. Manthey and Denzer, 2014, Sauria, Berlin, 36: 3–21, provided some morphology and color notes with a comparison with the difficult-to-distinguish Microhyla pineticolaSumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 8, reported specimens from Lata Belatan, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and briefly reported on their morphology and habitat.  Gawor, Pham, Nguyen, Nguyen, Schmitz, and Ziegler, 2016, Salamandra, 52: 25–26, reported the species in Quang Ninh Province, northeastern Vietnam. See account, photograph, and map for Vietnam in Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 78–80. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Duong, Gorin, and Yang, 2018, PeerJ, 6 (e5771): 17, provided records for Cat Ba National Park, Hai Phong Province,and from Cuc Phuong National Park, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam.  Pham, An, Herbst, Bonkowski, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Bonn Zool. Bull., 66: 37–53, provided records for Cao Bang Province, Vietnam, along with observatons on morphology and natural history. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 40, provided a brief account for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands populations. Guo, Yang, and Li, 2009, Colored Illust. Amph. Rept. Taiwan: 70–71, provided a brief account, photographs, and map. Shen, 2014, Fauna Hunan, Amph.: 336–338, provided an account for Hunan, China. Li, 2011, Amph. Rept. Guangdong: 73, provided a brief account for Guangdong, China, and photograph. Hecht, Pham, Nguyen, Nguyen, Bonkowski, and Ziegler, 2013, Biodiversity J., 4: 507–552, reported a record from Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, Bac Giang Province, northeastern Vietnam and discussed the range. Zhang, 2017, Amph. Rept. Fanjing Mts.: 179–181, provided taxonomic and natural history information for the Fanjing Mountains population in northeastern Guizhou, China. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 95, provided a genetically confirmed record from Taninthary Division, southern Myanmar. Provisionally placed in the Microhyla achatina species group by Garg, Suyesh, Das, Jiang, Wijayathilaka, Amarasinghe, Alhadi, Vineeth, Aravind, Senevirathne, Meegaskumbura, and Biju, 2018 "2019", Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 69: 1–71, who provided an account and implied that nominal Microhyla heymonsi is a complex of species, including one unnamed species on the Andaman Island, and who noted that previous records from northeastern mainland India likely refer to Microhyla mymensinghensisNiyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 226–227, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Chen, Lin, Tang, Ding, Wu, and Lin, 2020, PeerJ, 8 (e8708): 1–19, reported on the advertisement call and provided a range map for China.  Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 119, provided a brief account, photographs, and a range map for Thailand.Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 47, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Hui, Ngadi, Md-Zain, Md-Zairi, and Abdul-Latiff, 2020, Biodiversitas, 21: 2425-2429, reported the species from Pulau Tinggi, off the southeastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. Gorin, Solovyeva, Hasan, Okamiya, Karunarathna, Pawangkhanant, de Silva, Juthong, Milto, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Haas, Bickford, Das, and Poyarkov, 2020, PeerJ, 8 (e9411): 1–47, placed this species in their Microhyla achatina group and noted that it is composed of 7–8 cryptic lineages. Fatihah-Syafiq, Badli-Sham, Fahmi-Ahmad, Aqmal-Naser, Rizal, Azmi, Grismer, and Ahmad, 2020, ZooKeys, 985: 143–162, reported the species from Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Pham, Do, Ngo, Tran, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2020, Check List, 16: 1025–1041, provided a record from Hai Ha District, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam, on the Guangxi, China, border. Akbari, Hamidy, Maryanto, Munir, and Smith, 2021, J. Physics Conf. Ser., 1725 (012063): 1–7, reported on molecular phylogeography employing the mt 16S rRNA gene. Hong, Anuar, Grismer, and Quah, 2021, Check List, 17: 796, reported the species from Batu Hampar Recreational Forest, Kedah, West Malaysia. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 31, briefly discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. Duong and Ngo, 2022, Herpetol. Notes, 15: 751–762, discussed range in Vietnam and provided records for Binh Dinh Province. Figueroa, Low, and Lim, 2023, Zootaxa, 5287: 1–378, provided (as Microhyla cf. heymonsi) records, literature, and conservation status for Singapore. Eprilurahman, Atmaja, Munir, Ubaidillah, Arisuryanti, Smith, and Hamidy, 2023, Biodiversitas, 24: 1092–1103, suggested on molecular grounds that populations of nominal Microhyla heymonsi from West Malaysia and Singapore are referable to Microhyla cf. nakkvaram, a possibly distinct species close to Microhyla nakkavaram.       

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