Pseudophilautus cavirostris (Günther, 1869)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Pseudophilautus > Species: Pseudophilautus cavirostris

Polypedates cavirostris Günther, 1869 "1868", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868: 486. Holotype: BMNH 1868.3.17.32 according to Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 185, now renumbered 1947.2.7.83 by museum records. Type locality: "Southern Ceylon [= Sri Lanka]".

Ixalus fimbriatus Günther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 4, 9: 87. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.31.29 (formerly 1871.12.14.38) according to Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 99. Type locality: "Peradeniya ... collected chiefly in the neighbourhood of the locality named .... Ceylon", Sri Lanka. Synonymy with Polypedates microtympanum by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 82. Synonymy with Polypedates cavirostris by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 82; Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 481; Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 24.

Rhacophorus cavirostrisBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: viii, 82. Liu and Hu, 1960 "1959", Acta Zool. Sinica, 11: 526; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 247; Tian, Jiang, Wu, Hu, Zhao, and Huang, 1986, Handb. Chinese Amph. Rept.: 64.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) cavirostrisAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 122.

Philautus cavirostrisJiang, Hu, and Zhao, 1987, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 6 (1): 32, 34; Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 176. See comment.

Rhacophorus carvirostrisLue, Lai, and Chen, 1994, Herpetologica, 50: 303–308. Incorrect subsequent spelling. See comment.

Philautus (Kirtixalus) cavirostrisBossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 22.

Kirtixalus cavirostrisYu, Rao, Zhang, and Yang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 578, by implication.

Pseudophilautus cavirostrisLi, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 519. Provisional allocation.

English Names

Tibetan Bubble-nest Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111 [presumably based on a species other than Philautus cavirostris; see comment).

Tubercle Shrub Frog (de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 95).


Discontinuous in wet forest of southwestern Sri Lanka at 30–1100 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Sri Lanka

Endemic: Sri Lanka


Removed from the synonymy of Polypedates microtympanum by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 22, where it had been place by Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 174, and Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 63. See account by Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 2005, Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl., 12: 195–200. Chinese records of Rhacophorus cavirostris (e.g., Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 247–248; Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 118–119; Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 120) likely apply to Rhacophorus bisacculus or Rhacophorus verrucosus according to Inger, Orlov, and Darevsky, 1999, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 92: 39–40 (see account of "Rhacophorus cavirostris" from Yunnan by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 210–212, and brief account by Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 90–91, for Yunnan, China.). See comment under Rhacophorus hainanensis. There is a problem here; it is extremely unlikely that one species is found in Sri Lanka as well as in the mountains of China and one must guess that the species in China is not appropriately referred to Pseudophilautus cavirostris. (See Kurixalus odontotarsus and Kurixalus verrucosus records.) de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 95, provided a brief account and color photograph. Bopage, Wewelwala, Krvavac, Jovanovic, Safarek, and Pushpamal, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 173–177, reported the species in lowland forest in the Kanneliya Forest of southwestern Sri Lanka.

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