Pseudis Wagler, 1830

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Pseudis
7 species

Pseudis Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 203. Type species: Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy.

PseudesLeunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 148. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Podonectes Steindachner, 1864, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 14: 262. Type species: Podonectes palmatus Fitzinger, 1864, by monotypy. Name coined as a synonym of Pseudis, and therefore unavailable, and attributed to Fitzinger. See comment under Podonectes palmatus Steindachner. Batrachychthys Pizarro, 1876, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 1: 34. Type species: Not designated; based on larvae of Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758), according to Caramaschi and Cruz, 1998, Rev. Brasil. Zool., 15: 929-944. Provisional synonymy with Pseudis by Garman, 1877, Am. Nat., 11: 588; O'Shaughnessy, 1879, Zool. Rec., 14: 11.

Batrachychthis Pizarro, 1876, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 1: 31. Synonymy by Garman, 1877, Am. Nat., 11: 587. 

BatrachichthysBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 185. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Swimming Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 97).

Robust South American Swimming Frogs (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 


Guianas, northeastern Venezuela (and expected in southeastern Venezuela), Trinidad, and southern Brazil, Paraguay, southeastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and Uruguay.


For discussion see Savage and Carvalho, 1953, Zoologica, New York, 38: 193-200, and Gallardo, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 125: 111-134. In the Dendropsophini of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 93. Alcalde and Barg, 2006, Acta Zool., Stockholm, 87: 91-100, discussed the larval synapomorphies of Pseudis + Lysapsus. Garda and Cannatella, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 44: 104-114, discussed the mtDNA sequence phylogenetics of Pseudis + Lysapsus and found Pseudis to be paraphyletic with respect to Lysapsus and resurrected the name Podonectes Steindachner for Pseudis minutus and Pseudis cardosoi. Unfortunately, for arcane nomenclatural reasons, Podonectes and Podonectes palmatus are unavailable by reason of being names as synonyms of, respectively, Pseudis and Pseudis minutus. At the time of their writing Savage and Carvalho, 1953, Zoologica, New York, 38: 193-200, regarded Podonectes and Podonectes palmatus as available but they did not treat either as a valid name of a taxon, except to note that Fitzinger's specimens of Podonectes palmatus were actually of the same biological entity as Lysapsus limellus. They therefore did not validate either Podonectes or Podonectes palmatus for purposes of nomenclature and they remain unavailable. For discussion of former Lysapsus see Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 422-425, and Klappenbach, 1985, Comun. Zool. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, 11: 1-23, who considered all of the subspecies recognized by Gallardo as distinct species, with the exception of Lysapsus limellus bolivianus, which Klappenbach regarded as a likely subspecies of Lysapsus laevis. Aguiar, Bacci, Lima, Rossa-Feres, Haddad, and Recco-Pimentel, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 455-463, subsequently regarded Lysapsus as a junior synonym of Pseudis, thereby obviating the nomenclatural problem extending from the use of Podonectes. Busin, Andrade, Bertolda, Del Grande, Uetanabaro, and Recco-Pimentel, 2008, Genetica, 133: 119-127, reported on karyological evolution. Wiens, Kuczynski, Hua, and Moen, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 5555: 871-882, did not find former Pseudis paraphyletic with respect to Lysapsus and suggested that the synonymy of Lysapsus with Pseudis is unnecessary. Garda, Santana, and São Pedro, 2010, Zootaxa, 2666: 1-28, reported on morphometrics and ranges of the species, and removed Lysapsus from Pseudis on the basis of evidence presented by Wiens et al., 2010. Turazzini and Gómez, 2023, Zool. Anz., 303: 47–70, reported on osteology of Lysapsus and Pseudis, with special reference to synapomorphies of groups within and shared by these taxa. 

Contained taxa (7 sp.):

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