Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylodidae > Genus: Hylodes
33 species

Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 38. Type species: Hylodes gravenhorstii Fitzinger, 1826 (nomen nudum) and Hyla ranoides Spix, 1824 (= Hyla nasus Lichtenstein, 1823); Hyla ranoides Spix, 1824, by monotypy.

Enydrobius Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 202. Substitute name for Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826.

Elosia Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 36, 77. Type species: Elosia nasuta Tschudi, 1838, by monotypy. Synonymy by Steindachner, 1865, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 15: 499; Myers, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 195-202.

Scinacodes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32. Type species: Hyla nasus Lichtenstein, 1823, by original designation. Synonymy by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 280.

Megaelosia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 13: 819. Type species: Megaelosia bufonia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, by monotypy. Giaretta, Bokermann, and Haddad, 1993, J. Herpetol., 27: 276-285, noted that the specimen studied by Miranda-Ribeiro are actually of the species Hylodes goeldii Baumann, 1912, so, under Art. 70.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) fixing by implication the type species to be Hylodes goeldii Baumann, 1912. Synonymy by Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 437.

Magaelosia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 13: 819. Alternative spelling.

ElesiaBrazil and Vellard, 1926, Mem. Inst. Butantan, São Paulo, 3: 43. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Tree Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 81).

Torrent Frogs (Lingnau, Canedo, and Pombal, 2008, Copeia, 2008: 595).

Big-tooth Frogs (Megaelosia [no longer recognized: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).


High-gradient streams in Atlantic forests in the state of Espirito Santo south through Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to Rio Grando do Sul, in southern Brazil.


Myers, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 195–202, reviewed the nomenclatural history of Hylodes; his opinion was followed by Lynch, 1971, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 53: 1–238. See Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 36–38, for discussion of the type localities of the Brazilian forms under Elosia. Heyer, 1982, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 95: 377–385, defined the species groups noted in the species accounts. Heyer and Cocroft, 1986, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 99: 100–109, discussed the Hylodes lateristrigatus group. Megaelosia, now a synonym)  reviewed by Giaretta, Bokermann, and Haddad, 1993, J. Herpetol., 27: 276-285. Pavan, Narvaes, and Rodrigues, 2001, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 41: 407–425, discussed the similarity groups of species and phylogeny within the genus. Nascimento, Pombal, and Haddad, 2001, J. Zool., London, 254: 421–428, also summarized the species groups. Pavan, Narvaes, and Rodrigues, 2001, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 41: 407–425, suggested that the Hylodes asper group is paraphyletic. Nuin and Val, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 139–147, provided evidence for the monophyly of Hylodes. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Hylodes is paraphyletic with respect to Megaelosia. Weber and Caramaschi, 2013, Zootaxa, 3635: 557–568,  reported on comparative larval morphology of the species. 

Contained taxa (33 sp.):

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