Xenorhina Peters, 1863

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Asterophryinae > Genus: Xenorhina
34 species

Xenorhina Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 82. Type species: Bombinator oxycephalus Schlegel, 1858, by monotypy.

Xenobatrachus Peters and Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13: 432. Type species: Xenobatrachus ophiodon Peters and Doria, 1878, by monotypy. Synonymy by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 366.

Choanacantha Méhely, 1898, Termés. Füzetek, 21: 175. Type species: Choanacantha rostrata Méhely, 1898, by monotypy. Synonymy with Xenobatrachus by Méhely, 1901, Termés. Füzetek, 24: 182, 231; Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 54; Loveridge, 1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 101: 416.

Pseudengystoma De Witte, 1930 "1929", Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 60: 132. Type species: Pseudengystoma bouwensi De Witte, 1930 "1929", by monotypy. Synonymy (with Asterophrys) by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 58. Synonymy with Xenorhina by Zweifel, 1972, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 148: 531.

English Names

Snouted Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 93).

Fanged Frogs (Xenobatrachus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 93).

Distribution

New Guinea, including some satellite islands.

Comment

Key and systematic discussion provided by Blum and Menzies, 1989 "1988", Alytes, 7: 125-163. Removed from the synonymy of Asterophrys by Zweifel, 1972, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 148: 426, where it had been placed by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 58. Kraus and Allison, 2002, Herpetologica, 58: 56, noted that recognition of Xenobatrachus may render Xenorhina paraphyletic. See Blum and Menzies, 1989 "1988", Alytes, 7: 125-163, for discussion of former Xenobatrachus. Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 255-271, discussed the difficulty in separating former Xenorhina from Xenobatrachus, abandoned the Xenobatrachus rostratus group as undiagnosable, and provided brief accounts for the species. Köhler and Günther, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 47: 353-365, on the basis of molecular evidence regarded Xenobatrachus as phylogenetically imbedded within Xenorhina and supported the synonymy. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Xenorhina is polyphyletic, with Xenorhina obesa (a former member of Xenobatrachus) falling far from the remainder of their exemplars (composed of species formerly assigned to both Xenobatrachus and Xenorhina) of this genus. Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 418, recovered Xenorhina as paraphyletic, but very weakly so in terms of confidence. Xenorhina obesa was weakly associated with a group of Asterophrys, and Xenorhina bouensi, Xenorhina lanthanites, Xenorhina oxycephala, and Xenorhina varia, forming a monophyletic group, the sister of Xenorhina obesa + (some Asterophrys + Oninia). In response to the general chaos of generic boundaries in Asterophryinae, the authors placed all asterophryine genera that they had sampled, other than Gastrophrynoides, into the synonymy of Asterophrys

Contained taxa (34 sp.):

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