Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 216. Type(s): "Museum Blochianum" (= ZMB); ZMB 3462–63 are syntypes according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 80. ZMB 3462 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 139 (who redescribed this type). Type locality: "India orientali".

Bufo chlorogaster Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 74. Type(s): Not stated but presumably originally in MNHNP; not mentioned by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., so presumably lost or never there. Type locality: "sur une montagne de l'île Java", Indonesia. A nomen dubium according to Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 74. Provisional synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 47. Provisionally allocated to the Bufo stomaticus group by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 169.

Rana dubia Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 157. Holotype: BMNH, now lost according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 144, who designated ZMB 3462 (the lectotype of Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799) as neotype. Type locality: Not designated, but see discussion by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 143–144. Neotype from "India orientali". Synonymy by Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Anderson, 1879 "1878", Anat. Zool. Res.: 842; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306.

Bufo scaber Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 94. Types: Animal figured on page 94, pl. 34, fig. 1, of the original publication, presumably originally placed in the MNHNP (now lost) and ZMB according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 144; ZMB 3464 recorded as a syntype by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 76–82; ZMB 3462 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 145. Type locality: "India orientali". Synonymy under Bufo melanostictus by Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 57; Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 194. Synonymy (with Bufo melanostictus, under Bufo scaber) by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 94; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 699; Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61; Peters, 1860, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1860: 186; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 42; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306. Junior primary homonym of Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799. Recognized; without discussion, by Bourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 260.

Bufo flaviventris Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 74, pl. 74, alternative name for Bufo chlorogaster Daudin, 1802.

Rana melanostictaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 174.

Bufo dubiusGray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: viii, plate 83.

Bufo gymnauchen Bleeker, 1858, Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, 16: 46. Type(s): Not stated; BMNH and RMNH have specimens considered types (RMNH 3961 is a former syntype according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 33); BMNH 1947.2.21.71 invalidly designated lectotype by implication by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 307, referral to the BMNH specimen from "Bintang" as "type". Type locality: "Indischen archipel"; corrected to Bintang [Pulau Bintang, Roux Archipelago] by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 307, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70. Tentative synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Stoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 152. Synonymy with Bufo isos by Peters, 1872, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 3: 27–45. Synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 71.

Docidophryne isosFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415; Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Docidophryne spinipes Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415. Type(s): Presumably originally in NHMW or ZIUW. Type locality: "Nicobaren". Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 43. Synonymy questioned by Crombie, 1986, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 83: 227.

Phrynoidis melanostictusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo spinipes Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 42. Syntypes: NHMW (4 specimens); NHMW 5371.1 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 150. Type locality: "Nikobaren" [= Nicobar Islands]. Synonymy by Stoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 156; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306. Secondary homonym of Bufo spinipes (Daudin, 1802).

Bufo longecristatus Werner, 1903, Zool. Anz., 26: 252. Holotype: IRSNB 9422 according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 155. Type locality: "Inneres von Borneo". Synonymy by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70.

Bufo (Palaeobufo) melanostictus — Bolkay, 1919, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 31: 295. 

Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937, Annexe Bull. Gen. Instr. Publique, Hanoi, 1937: 6, 11. Syntypes: MNHNP 48.123–124 (formerly Lab. Sci. Nat. Univ. Hanoi B-126 and B-127), according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 15. MNHNP 48.0124 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 162. Type locality: "col de Tien-Ho (Route de Lang-Son, Tonkin, alt. 300 m.)", Vietnam. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 163. This apparently doubted by Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 85.

Docidophryne melanostictusBourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 173.

Bufo camortensis Mansukhani and Sarkar, 1980, Bull. Zool. Surv. India, 3: 97. Holotype: ZSIC A6955, by original designation. Type locality: "compound of Camorta Guest House, Camorta, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India". Synonymy by Crombie, 1986, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 83: 226–229.

Bufo melanostictus melanostictusKhan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 297, by implication.

Duttaphrynus melanostictusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Duttaphrynus melanostictus hazarensis — Akram, Rais, López-Hervas, Tarvin, Saeed, Bolnick, and Cannatella, 2021, Ecol. Evol., 11: 14184. 

English Names

Doubtful Toad (Bufo dubia [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 157; Gray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: pl. 83).

Black-lipped Toad (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 170).

Asian Common Toad (Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 18; Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147).

Asian Toad (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 22).

Black-spined Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40)

Asian Toad (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 49).

South Asian Garden Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Asian Common Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Black-lipped Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Common Asian Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 25).

Black-spectacled Toad (Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152).

Reticulated Toad (Trade name).

House Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54).

Asiatic Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54).

Greenbelly Toad (Bufo chlorogaster [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Southeast Asian Toad (Bufo melanostictus melanostictus: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Common Sunda Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 17; Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 46).

Asian Eyebrow-ridge Toad (McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 32).

Spectacled Toad (Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 30).

Asian Black-spotted Toad (Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 57).

Asian Black-spined Toad (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 28). 

Distribution

Southwestern and southern China (including Hainan and Hongkong) and Taiwan throughout southern Asia from (provisionally) Sri Lanka, Andaman Is. (India), Maldives, and Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Sumba, up to 2000 m in some places; introduced into Madagascar, Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon, Sumbawa, and Manokwari, and New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula). See comment. 

Comment

With the partition by Jablonski, Masroor, and Hofmann, 2022, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 98: 275–284, of former Duttaphrynus melanostictus into Duttaphrynus bengalensis (Pakistan to Bangladesh with a poorly delimited southern and eastern boundary) and a restricted Duttaphrynus melanostictus (east of the range of Duttaphrynus bengalensis) at least some of the literature addressing Duttaphrynus melanostictus sensu lato will have to be employed cautiously. As here recognized the population found in Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, and China (Duttaphrynus sp. 2 of Jablonski et al., 2022) has not been formally named, presumably due to the difficult nomenclatural actions required. As partitioned out of Duttaphrynus melanostictus , the eastern (into Myanmar?), southern (into Sri Lanka?), and southeastern (into the Andaman Is.?) limit of the range is poorly understood. These authors recognized 3, possibly 4, lineages within the name Duttaphrynus melanostictus on molecular grounds, applying names to two of these. See comment under Duttaphrynus melanostictus. See Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 454 (China); Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 172–175 (French Indochina); Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 50–53 (Japan); Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 203 (Sichuan, China); and Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 332–335, for accounts and synonymies. See Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70–74, for an account of the Bornean population. Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 49, provided an account for Malaysian populations. Heyer, 1971, Fieldiana, Zool., 58: 61–82, reported on the call from Thailand.Sri Lankan population discussed by Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 20–22; Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 68–70; and Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 3: 238. See Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 454–456, and Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77–85, for discussion of Chinese population. See account by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 186, and Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102–104. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 140, suggested that nominal Duttaphrynus melanostictus (as Bufo) is a species complex (see Duttaphrynus bengalensis, then part of this complex). In the Bufo melanostictus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 64, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107, and Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 133–180. See account by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 47–48. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152, provided a brief account and illustration. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 70–71, provided a brief accoun for West Bengal, India. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 33–34. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 46–48, provided an account for Zhejiang populations. Menzies and Tapilatu, 2000, Sci. New Guinea, 25: 70–73, reported the species from the far west of New Guinea. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 58, provided an account for Guangxi. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 71–72. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 151–158, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 95. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54–55, provided a brief characterization. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 140, reported on introduced populations in Sulawesi, Papua New Guinea, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 19–20, provided a brief account for Bufo camortensis, which he recognized without discussion. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92–93, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Teynié, David, Ohler, and Luanglath, 2004, Hamadryad, 29: 35, commented on its distribution in Laos. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 148, provided a photograph. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 475, provided records for Laos. McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 32–33, provided a brief account and photograph. Glaw and Rosado, 2006, Herpetol. Rev., 37: 502, provided records for Maldives. Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 30–31, provided a brief account. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted several larval descriptions in the literature of various levels of completeness (as Bufo melanostictus). Youmans and Wood, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 96, provided a record for West Malaysia. Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 57–58, reported the species as introduced into Papua New Guinea and detailed its range there. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 47–48, provided a brief account (as Bufo melanostictus) for Yunnan, China. Charles and Das, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 478, provided a record for Brunei. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 511–517, provided an account for China and a spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 230–231, provided a brief account (as Bufo melanostictus) including photographs. de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 64, provided a brief account for Sri Lanka and color photograph. Shi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Fauna Hainan: 43–45, provided an account for Hainan. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 28–29, provided a brief account and photograph for eastern Thailand. Bopage, Wewelwala, Krvavac, Jovanovic, Safarek, and Pushpamal, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 173–177, reported the species in lowland forest in the Kanneliya Forest of southwestern Sri Lanka. Wanger, Motzke, Saleh, and Iskandar, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 17–29, reported the species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. O'Shea, Sanchez, Heacox, Kathriner, Carvalho, Ribeiro, Soares, Araujo, and Kaiser, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 114–126, reported an introduced population in East Timor. Aran, Chuaynkern, Duangjai, and Chuaynkern, 2012, J. Wildlife Thailand, 19: 41–73, described larval morphology including the oral apparatus. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 46–47, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 258–259, provided an account, photographs, and range map for China. Wei, Zhao, Ma, Fan, Ma, and Lin, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., 3: 157–162, discussed advertisement call variability in Zhejiang, China. Hasan, Islam, Khan, Igawa, Alam, Tjong, Kurniawan, Joshy, Yong, Belabut, Kurabayashi, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2014, Turkish J. Zool., 38: 389, suggested on the basis of 16S mtDNA divergence that two lineages existed under this name in peninsular Malaysia. Zhou, Qiu, Fang, Yang, Zhao, Fang, Zheng, and Liu, 2014, Zool. Res., Kunming, 35: 42–50, reported on call characteristics in China. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Ngo and Ngo, 2013, Zool. Stud., Taipei, 52 (12): 1–13, reported on the advertisement call in Vietnam. Reported from the Phi Phi Archipelago of peninsular Thailand by Milto, 2014, Russ. J. Herpetol., 21: 272. Wogan, Stuart, Iskandar, and McGuire, 2016, Biol. Lett., 12 (Art. 20150807): 1–5, reported on three genetically divergent populations, presumably distinct species, corresponding to the a) Asian mainland (not studied west of Myanmar) south to Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo; b) coastal Myanmar with an isolated record in Peninsular Malaysia; and c) Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi. O'Shea, Sanchez, Kathriner, Mecke, Carvalho, Ribeiro, Soares, Araujo, and Kaiser, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 77–79, detailed the range in East Timor. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 774–777 provided an account, photograph, and dot map for China. Vences, Brown, Lathrop, Rosa, Cameron, Crottini, Dolch, Edmonds, Freeman, Glaw, Grismer, Litvinchuk, Milne, Moore, Solofo, Noël, Nguyen, Ohler, Randrianantoandro, Raselimanana, van Leeuwen, Wogan, Ziegler, Andreone, and Murphy, 2017, Amphibia-Reptilia, 38: 197–207, identified through forensic molecular phylogenetics that southern Vietnam is the likely source of the introduced Madagascan population and discussed the potential range in Madagascar. Pham, An, Herbst, Bonkowski, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Bonn Zool. Bull., 66: 37–53, provided records for Cao Bang Province, Vietnam, along with observatons on morphology and natural history. Amram, Zainudin, and Wahid, 2018, Sains Malaysiana, 47: 1–7, reported on the mating call in Sarawak, Malaysia. Tshewang and Letro, 2018, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: , reported the species from Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in central Bhutan. Harikrishnan and Vasudevan, 2018, Alytes, 36: 241–242, commented on the distribution and natural history in the Andaman Island, India. Guo, Yang, and Li, 2009, Colored Illust. Amph. Rept. Taiwan: 62–63, provided a brief account, photographs, and map. Shen, 2014, Fauna Hunan, Amph.: 180–182, provided a detailed account, as Bufo melanostictus, for Hunan, China. Li, 2011, Amph. Rept. Guangdong: 33, provided a brief account for Guangdong, China, and photograph. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 85–162, a record from Tanintharyi Division, Myanmar. Licata, Ficetola, Freeman, Mahasoa, Ravololonarivo, Fidy, Koto-Jean, Nahavitatsara, Andreone, and Crottini, 2019, Biol. Invasions, 21: 1615–1626, reported on the abundance and spread of an introduced population in eastern Madagascar. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 182–183, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 28–29, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Othman, Chen, Chuang, Andersen, Jang, and Borzée, 2020, Animals, 10 (1157) : 1–24, reported on molecular phylogeography in Southeast Asia, and suggested that the presence of this species in Taiwan and the Sundas and Wallacea is due to late Pleistocene and early Holocene anthropogenic events. Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 46–47, provided a brief account and range map for northern Thailand and photographs. See brief account for East Java by Amin, 2020, Frogs of East Java: 34–37. Reilly, Stubbs, Arida, Arifin, Bloch, Hamidy, Harmon, Hykin, Karin, Ramadhan, Iskandar, and McGuire, 2020, Herpetol. Rev., 51: 786, provided an introduced population on Sumba I., Indonesia. Othman, Chen, Chuang, Andersen, Jang, and Borzée, 2020, Animals, 10 (1157) : 1–24, reported on molecular phylogeography of the segment of the range east of India and including the introduced population Madagascar. Rais, Ahmed, Sajjad, Akram, Saeed, Hamid, and Abid, 2021, ZooKeys, 1062: 157–175, included this species in an identification key to the amphibian species of Pakistan as well as providing a photograph. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 15, discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. Kennedi, Kusrini, Mardiastuti, and Ariefiandy, 2021, Media Konservasi , 26: 217–230, reported the species on Sumbawa I., Indonesia. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 246–248, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration.  

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