Osornophryne Ruiz-Carranza and Hernández-Camacho, 1976

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Osornophryne
11 species

Osornophryne Ruiz-Carranza and Hernández-Camacho, 1976, Caldasia, 11: 97. Type species: Osornophryne percrassa Ruiz-Carranza and Hernández-Camacho, 1976, by original designation.

English Names

Plump Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 45).


Cordillera Central in Colombia to central Andes of Ecuador, between 2700 and 3700 m.


For discussion and review see Ruiz-Carranza and Hernández-Camacho, 1976, Caldasia, 11: 93–148. See Cannatella, 1986, Herpetologica, 42: 197–205, for discussion of phylogenetic relationships. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 129, regarded it as most closely related to Atelopus of the exemplars that they studied. Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679–682, suggested that Osornophryne was distantly related to Atelopus, but still attaching to the bufonid tree near the base. Hoogmoed, 1987, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 61: 209–242, provided a key. See comment under Nannophryne cophotis. See comment under Incilius fastidiosus. Graybeal and Cannatella, 1995, Herpetologica, 51: 122, presented evidence supporting the monophyly of Osornophryne. Gluesenkamp, 1995, Herpetologica, 51: 268–279, discussed the distinctiveness of Osornophryne sumacoensis, Osornophryne guacamayo, and Osornophryne antisana. Mueses-Cisneros, 2003, Caldasia, 25: 419–427, reviewed the species in Colombia. Páez-Moscoso, Guayasamin, and Yánez-Muñoz, 2011, ZooKeys, 108: 73–97, provided a key to the species within the genus and a mtDNA tree of the species. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, did not find Osornophryne as the sister taxon of Atelopus (among their exemplar taxa), but as the sister taxon of all bufonids excepting Melanophryniscus and Atelopus. Páez-Moscoso and Guayasamin, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 805–822, provided a species tree and discussed the evidence supporting current delimitations.


Contained taxa (11 sp.):

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